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Exposure to airborne hazardous chemicals in the workplace can pose significant health risks to workers.

Most exposure to these chemicals happens when workers inhale vapours, dusts, fumes or gases, but absorption through the skin may also be a significant source of exposure for some chemicals.

The extent to which a worker is exposed depends on the concentration of the chemical in the air, the amount of time they are exposed and the effectiveness of controls.

Exposure to chemicals may cause immediate acute health effects or it may be decades before effects become evident.

Workplace exposure standards in Australia

Workplace exposure standards in Australia cover approximately 700 chemicals. A workplace exposure standard for a particular chemical sets out the legal concentration limit of that chemical that must not be exceeded.

Workplace exposure standards are not intended to represent acceptable exposure levels for workers. They are simply the maximum upper limit prescribed by legislation.

Workplace exposure standards do not identify a dividing line between a healthy or unhealthy working environment. Everyone is different, and this means that some people might experience adverse health effects below the exposure standard.

Work health and safety duties 

A business must ensure that a worker is not exposed to airborne chemicals above the workplace exposure standard.

The model Code of practice: Managing risks of hazardous chemicals in the workplace provides guidance on a four-step risk management approach to managing the risks of hazardous chemicals, which is hazard identification, risk assessment, risk control and review. See also Identify, assess and control hazards.

Air monitoring for airborne contaminants

To comply with the model WHS Regulations, businesses may need to monitor workers’ exposure to airborne chemicals if:

  • there is uncertainty whether or not the exposure standard has been or may be exceeded, or
  • it is necessary to work out whether there is a risk to health.

Records of air monitoring must be kept for a minimum of 30 years and must be made available to workers who are exposed.

Workplace exposure standards consultation and review

We are currently reviewing the workplace exposure standards to ensure they are based on the highest quality evidence and supported by a rigorous, scientific approach.

Safe Work Australia has developed a methodology for the review of workplace exposure standards, which includes:

  • sourcing exposure standard information
  • evaluating individual workplace exposure standards, including notations, and
  • revising the list of chemicals.

This process will result in recommendations for the workplace exposure standard values, notations and the list of chemicals.

These recommendations will be released alphabetically for public comment throughout 2019-2020. Each release will include recommendations for approximately 50 chemicals.

Consultation regulation impact statement

Thank you to everyone who participated in the consultation regulation impact statement (consultation RIS) for the workplace exposure standards framework.

A consultation summary and submissions received are available to read on our consultation platform, Engage. The outcomes of the RIS process will be available in late 2019.

Contribute to the review

To stay up-to-date with the review into workplace exposure standards, or take part in consultation opportunities, subscribe to the chemical exposure standards mailing list.

If you have any further questions about workplace exposure standards, email

Key workplace exposure standards documents

Workplace exposure standards of other countries

Further advice

SWA is not a regulator and cannot advise you about compliance with exposure standards in your workplace. If you need help, please contact your state or territory work health and safety regulator.


You must check with your WHS regulator if a model Code of Practice has been implemented in your jurisdiction. Check with your WHS Regulator.

This site is undergoing constant refinement. If you have noticed something that needs attention or have ideas for the site please let us know.

Last modified on Monday 14 October 2019 [2271|92684]