Fatigue https://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/ en Managing shift work and workplace fatigue https://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/media-centre/managing-shift-work-and-workplace-fatigue <div class="node node--type-media node--view-mode-rss layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Body</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Today’s society is increasingly focused on a 24/7 economy and the expectations on people to work at all hours of the day have increased.</p> <p>Research shows that shift work and irregular or long working hours, can adversely affect the health, safety and wellbeing of workers. Fatigue management is critical and everyone in the workplace has a responsibility to ensure fatigue  doesn’t create a work health and safety risk.</p> <p>Four expert panellists explore the effects of shift work and fatigue and the latest research in this area. They highlight that it’s a complex problem and there is not a one size fits all solution.</p> <p>Panellists also discuss practical ways that organisations can mitigate the risks associated with shift work and fatigue, including good work design, encouraging a culture where workers feel comfortable to speak up and technological solutions.</p> <p><strong>Dr Johannes Gärtner – case study</strong></p> <p>Dr Johannes Gärtner shares the story of a steel mill in Austria that reduced working hours to retain employees and found many benefits.</p> <p><iframe allowfullscreen="" mozallowfullscreen="" src="https://publish.viostream.com/embed/player?key=o99eudnycm8fp&amp;width=640&amp;height=360" style="border: currentColor; border-image: none; width: 640px; height: 360px; overflow: hidden;" webkitallowfullscreen=""></iframe></p> <h2>Who is this seminar for?</h2> <p>This panel discussion will be of interest to leaders and managers in organisations that employ shift workers, those who have responsibility for rostering and shift workers themselves. Researchers, HR and safety professionals with an interest in fatigue management or shift work may also find this video relevant.</p> <h2>About the presenters</h2> <p>Hans Van Dongen is the Director of the Sleep and Performance Research Center and a Professor in the College of Medicine at Washington State University Spokane. He is internationally known for his research on cumulative cognitive deficits due to chronic sleep restriction, trait inter-individual differences in vulnerability to fatigue, mathematical modelling of fatigue and cognitive performance, and fatigue risk management.</p> <p>Claudia Moreno is Associate Professor at the School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, Brazil. Her areas of study include circadian rhythms, sleep, diseases among shift workers and the work population in general. Claudia is also an affiliated researcher at the Stress Research Institute at Stockholm University, Sweden and board member of the Brazilian Sleep Society.</p> <p>Diane Boivin is Professor of Psychiatry at McGill University and Director of the Centre for Study and Treatment of Human Circadian Rhythms at the Douglas Mental Health University Institute. Her research interests cover the problem of maladaptation to shift work, jet lag, fatigue risk management, sex differences in circadian rhythms and the role of circadian rhythms in various medical and psychiatric conditions.</p> <p>Professor Drew Dawson, Director of the Appleton Institute at Central Queensland University, is an internationally acclaimed sleep scientist who is recognised for his work in the areas of sleep and fatigue research, organisational psychology and human behaviour, industrial relations negotiations, and the human implications of hours of work.</p> <h2>Additional resources</h2> <ul> <li><a href="/fatigue">Fatigue</a>, Safe Work Australia</li> <li><a href="/work-related-fatigue">Work-related fatigue and job design video</a>, Safe Work Australia</li> <li><a href="/doc/guide-managing-risk-fatigue-work">Guide for managing the risk of fatigue at work</a>, Safe Work Australia</li> <li><a href="/media/fresh-thinking-tired-subject">Fresh thinking on a tired subject video</a>, Safe Work Australia</li> <li><a href="http://www.safework.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0016/50065/how_to_manage_shiftwork_guide_0224.pdf">How to manage shift work</a>, SafeWork NSW</li> </ul> </div> </div> <div class="field transcript-group"> <div class="field__label">Transcript</div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-html-transcript field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p><strong>Managing shift work and fatigue panel discussion</strong></p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> DR PETA MILLER</p> <p>Welcome to Safe Work Australia's Virtual Seminar Series. I'm delighted that we have four, international experts to actually assist us with our questions today. And I might start with Claudia. Would you mind introducing yourself to Safe Work Australia's audience? </p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR CLAUDIA ROBERTA DE CASTRO MORENO</p> <p>Thank you. I'm Claudia Moreno. I am from the School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, Brazil. I am a professor there and I study circadian rhythms, sleep, and some, diseases among shift workers and the work population in general.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR DREW DAWSON</p> <p>I'm Drew Dawson. I'm the director of the Appleton Institute at Central Queensland University. And we've spent about the last 20 years studying the effects of shift work and fatigue, and in particular we're interested in the impact on accidents and injuries.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR HANS VAN DONGEN</p> <p>I'm Hans Van Dongen. I'm the director of the Sleep and Performance Research Center and a professor in the college of medicine at Washington State University in Spokane in the United States. And my research focuses on sleep deprivation and circadian misalignment, or what it is like to be a shift worker, both in the lab and in the field.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR DIANE BOIVIN</p> <p>I'm Diane Boivin. I'm the director of the Centre for Study and Treatment of Circadian Rhythms at Douglas Institute, McGill University, in Montreal. And I'm studying the impact of circadian misalignment or disruption of the sleep/wake cycle, on physiological rhythm and its application to shift work, and also fatigue in the field for shift workers.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> DR PETA MILLER</p> <p>So you can see we've got a very impressive line-up, today to talk to. But, Drew, before we begin into the questions, we're sitting here today at the 23rd International Symposium on Shift work and Working Time, at the lovely Uluru centre that you've got us here to. Please, can you tell us what is this symposium that you have arranged?</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR DREW DAWSON</p> <p>Well, every two years or so around about 100 to 120 people interested in the effects of shift work and treatments for shift work get together somewhere remote and exotic in the world, and the idea is to share with a group of academics, industry partners, regulators, what's the latest research in shift work, and what we can do to minimise some of the problems that are...have been identified with shift work.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> DR PETA MILLER</p> <p>Fantastic. That's great. So, I might start with you, if I could, Diane. So, for our audience, what do you mean when you're talking about shift work and working time?</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR DIANE BOIVIN</p> <p>You can answer that question on two levels. First, on the organisational level, it means group of workers who would alternate at a given position. And in France...French, we say 'travail posté' mean that you're at a position and you rotate group of workers. At the individual level it means that you will work or end up working outside of the conventional weekday daytime hours, and often it involves working during the night-time period. And there's all sorts of organisation - either it's permanent or a regular night shift or it's rotating or... You can pretty much observe a lot of organisation of work throughout various organisation or have a regular shift, being on call, and so on. So, these are atypical work schedule.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> DR PETA MILLER</p> <p>Thanks, Diane. And so, Hans, have working times and shifts changed in the last 30 years? Or are they still the same?</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR HANS VAN DONGEN</p> <p>Well, no, they've changed in a variety of ways. I think, first of all, we've gone to an increasingly 24/7-oriented economy and society, so the burden of society on people to work at all hours of the day has increased...continues to increase ever and ever. What I think is an interesting observation to make is that the way we try to manage those hours from a regulatory point of view is starting to change as well. If we go back to the beginning of the Industrial Revolution and all the way through the past century, we see there's an emphasis on regulating work time - in other words, putting maxima on how long you can work and putting minima on how long you should be off of work before you can rotate back into the workforce. What we're seeing nowadays is a tendency towards regulating not the hours per se, but, the level of fatigue that is associated with those hours and trying to put a cap on that level of fatigue so that you try to minimise the number of errors and risks that are associated with fatigue that enter the workplace. And that's a whole different kind of way of looking at the problem. It's much more dynamic, and instead of just counting hours, what you're trying to minimise is the effect of those hours as they have on performance and safety.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> DR PETA MILLER</p> <p>Drew have the working hours in Australia changed, or are they...do they reflect international patterns?</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR DREW DAWSON</p> <p>Well, a bit of both. If you go back 20 to 30 years in Australia you will have found that there was probably half a dozen rosters that were being worked around the country. Now there are literally thousands of different rosters. For many Australians the changes in the industrial landscape over the last couple of decades and in particular the shift of negotiating shifts from, government, unions and the industrial court to a situation now where it's typically negotiated between the employer and the employee at the local site means that we have a lot more people coming up with a lot of different rosters. The other interesting aspect of that is often people are designing and approving rosters with no expertise or knowledge about it. And, as a consequence, sometimes short-term productivity gains for the company or income issues for employees tend to dominate the discussion rather than the health and safety aspects of it.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> DR PETA MILLER</p> <p>Claudia, you...in your introduction, you told us that one of your expertise areas was in circadian rhythms. I wonder if you can... I understand that means our internal body clocks. I wonder if you can just unpack that a little bit more for our audience, about what is our internal body clock, and why is it important?</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR CLAUDIA ROBERTA DE CASTRO MORENO</p> <p>Well, it is important because, we are diurnal, so we are supposed to sleep during...at night and be awake during the day. And the problem is since the body was, ... since the body is with...has functions that are predetermined by...during the evolution as diurnal, this means if you inverse your work schedule you have health problems. And it's important to understand that to do a task at three in the morning is not the same as at three in the afternoon. And this has consequences on performance, on health in general, and can also lead to a number of disease. I think it's important to understand sleep, has to be according to the individual's needs, so some people really need to sleep more than others and this is not possible when you have quicker returns to work or you don't have days off enough to recover your sleep debt during the work week.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> DR PETA MILLER</p> <p>I might actually open to all of you because I know you all are researching in this area, but are there big differences between individuals, you know, or... I've been hearing some comments over the last few days at this meeting, but perhaps I could ask you to tell me about the individual differences, and are they...do they really matter?</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR DIANE BOIVIN</p> <p>Well, I think tremendously. However, it's a point where,  we need more research, because we understand very little the individual determinant that will make someone more vulnerable or resistant to shift work or sleep deprivation, and...or on developing long-term medical consequences associated with shift work. And I think Hans has very nice details to share about resistance to sleep deprivation.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR HANS VAN DONGEN</p> <p>Yes, so, one of the things we know is that people differ in how they respond to sleep loss and to working at odd hours, in a systematic manner, in such a way that we even think it's a trait or possibly genetically determined to some extent.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> DR PETA MILLER</p> <p>Is that the sort of early morning person versus...</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR HANS VAN DONGEN</p> <p>That's an aspect of it. It's also some people are much more, resilient to just not sleeping as much as they really should, and some people are very vulnerable when they even lose about 10 minutes of their normal sleep - you immediately see the consequences. The interesting, consequence of these differences is that with more flexible or more variable work schedules, there is, in principle, a better work schedule for every specific individual, and if we could just match the individual with the work schedule, shift work might not be as big a problem as it is today. But because we put people in shifts that are not in alignment with their normal rhythms or not in alignment with the amount of sleep that they need, we then put them in a situation where shift work becomes a problem. And this pertains to night shifts, but it also pertains to early morning shifts. If you're a person, going back to this morning/this evening thing, if you're a person who is not a morning type and you're forced to work early morning hours, that is as much shift work for your specific individual as working a night shift for somebody who is not an evening type or an owl.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> DR PETA MILLER</p> <p>So, Drew, what are health consequences for,...for shift work, for people with...they're not suited to it, or even if they are doing it most of the time?</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR DREW DAWSON</p> <p>Yeah, that's a very controversial area, Peta, and I suspect this is not going to be a satisfying answer to a lot of people, which is we have some preliminary data that shift work can cause health problems. Do we know the exact mechanisms of action and what's happening at the cellular level? No, we don't. But I think you could probably think of the health effects into a couple of broad areas. We know that there are profound effects of shift work on food metabolism and how we process food, and, at certain times of the day, certain types of food that we shouldn't eat seem a lot more attractive than at others. I think we're also starting to see some good work showing that shift work, particularly where there's sleep loss, has impact on the immune system. So there's been quite good animal and human studies showing that you can be more susceptible to infection and you can take longer to recover when you've been a shift worker. But I think there's also a lot of social consequences that lead to potential health problems. So, shift workers often eat worse food, they exercise less. Traditionally they have smoked cigarettes more, have drunk alcohol more. So, in many cases we see some of the short-term coping mechanisms for shift work also leading to long-term health consequences for shift workers. But, again, this is a very new and emerging field and one that's going to require a few more years of careful research before we start raising the red flag.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> DR PETA MILLER</p> <p>So - to any of you - are there gender differences? Are men and women the same? Are there age differences? I'm thinking about times when I've had adolescent children and their sleep needs. So are there...</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR DIANE BOIVIN</p> <p>Well, there's... The sex difference is a very, very important issue, and there is recent evidence showing that the way the circadian systems, or our body clock, controls sleep differs between men and women. And we know that there are, receptors to sexual hormones within the body, on the master clock. So, receptors to testosterone, progesterone...</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> DR PETA MILLER</p> <p>So could you just tell people what the master clock is?</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR DIANE BOIVIN</p> <p>Oh, the master clock is a tiny little structure in the middle of the head at the base of the hypothalamus. We call it the suprachiasmatic nucleus. You can throw that out during a party. It looks good. But it's a tiny structure and it's like the conductor, the master component of the circadian system. So, our system of body clocks, because we know there are several clocks now. But these are really sensitive to sex hormones. And the way...and they control a lot of function and rhythms throughout the body. It's so important that we have to study the sex difference. And there's some evidence that women could be physiologically more susceptible to being sleeping during the night, and so we need to pursue these question about the influence of sex, of age, individual differences and,.. But that's a great question.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR CLAUDIA ROBERTA DE CASTRO MORENO</p> <p>Can I add something about sex difference? Because I think it's not only sex differences, but it's also gender differences. What is the role of women at home or men at home? And this means if you have problems to be awake at night, you also have problems to sleep during the day if you have to take care of children and to do domestic tasks. So, this can also have an impact, an important impact on the adaptation of these women at work. And it's a physiological problem but it's also a social problem.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> DR PETA MILLER</p> <p>And, Hans, is there age differences?</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR HANS VAN DONGEN</p> <p>Yeah, age differences especially in shift work are very prominent, are very clearly,...and easy to find. The general tendency is that as people get older, they have more difficulty adapting to or tolerating shift work. There's a variety of reasons for that. It's the natural ageing process, but also the responsibilities that people have. When they get older, their life situation tends to change. So it's a constellation of factors that we haven't been able to tease apart very well. But we know that in general it becomes harder and harder as you get older to be a shift worker and actually function well or deal with the circumstances.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> DR PETA MILLER</p> <p>So you've been talking to me about the gender differences, some of the age differences, and some, family...who's doing the caring at home. Drew, you touched on the health consequences. I'm wondering about...what about the...are there safety implications in terms of increased accident risks, or not? Is that a myth?</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR DREW DAWSON</p> <p>Yeah, I think there's been a lot of work in the last few years, and I think we now understand that people who work shift work get less sleep, people who get less sleep are tired and people who are tired make more mistakes, and if that happens in a workplace, they can injure themselves or others. And I think there's a pretty solid basis for making that conclusion now. I think the interesting thing, however, has been the tendency in the past to think, well, the obvious solution to people being fatigued is to make them not fatigued, and that somehow we will change their rosters in a way that fatigue will go away as a problem. I think we've matured a little bit in the last decade or two and we've now come to the realisation that if you work 24/7, even if you get a decent sleep, you're always going to be tired at 4 o'clock in the morning. And I think we're moving from a culture and a safety mentality that says, "Fatigue's a problem, let's get rid of fatigue," to saying, "Fatigue's a problem. How can we get people to work safely whilst fatigued?" And I think a lot of the development in the last couple of years has been to say, "Let's identify people who are fatigued, and then let's rethink about their job and how they do things, and who knows they're fatigued, so that tired people can deliver health care and emergency services in those kind of occupations." Because, frankly, the inability to not provide the service politically has meant that people have pretended that fatigue's not a problem and done very little about it.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> DR PETA MILLER</p> <p>So, we're leading into one of the questions that I think will be of great interest to the audience. So, it's what can employers be doing in order to help accommodate tired workers? If you're saying it's a reality that some workers will need to be working even though they're sleep-deprived. And I'm opening it to the whole panel here.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR DREW DAWSON</p> <p>Well, from our experience in Australia - and that may not be universal around the world - the biggest and the most important step is to get the organisation to acknowledge that fatigue is a problem. We often say that fatigue is a forbidden topic of conversation - Don't mention it because it'll cost us 10% in the next EBA." And our experience has been that once organisations choose to talk about it and see what they can do to manage the risks, a lot of that can be identified and you can develop quite sensible, practical ways to reduce the risk if not always changing the roster, so I think...</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> DR PETA MILLER</p> <p>So the first step is to start talking about it?</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR DREW DAWSON</p> <p>Yeah, I think opening the dialogue up and saying, "Fatigue's a problem, let's talk about it. Let's share the silly things people do when they're fatigued and let's see if we can redesign the system so even if people are tired, those mistakes don't necessarily cost lives."</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> DR PETA MILLER</p> <p>So, Diane and Claudia and Hans, what are some of the things that employers can do to be redesigning the system to deal with this reality that some workers will be fatigued?</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR DIANE BOIVIN</p> <p>Well like Drew mentioned, it's very important to recognise there's a problem, an issue, and to realise that there's no perfect solution. The risk zero do not exist. So first recognise it if you want to manage it properly.</p> <p>And the other message is that one size doesn't fit all. It's a complex problem that needs to be approached by several different direction in order to mitigate its risk, properly. And one recommendation may work very well in some environment. For instance, "Oh, let's try to adjust the body clock of workers to revert to a night-oriented schedule with interventions such as light." It could be OK in some situation but not at all in others… But there's some general principles such as try to sleep as much as you... can. I think these are, you know... Avoid on a daily basis sleep restriction and the build-up of sleep debt as much as you can. But there needs to be some flexibility to accommodate the various situations.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> DR PETA MILLER</p> <p>So, Hans, some practical suggestions for Australian and international employers about what they can be doing to make, work...design work better?</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR HANS VAN DONGEN</p> <p>Yes, I think if you go to the working time arrangements that are currently in place, you start to look at how did they get it to be the way they are, you oftentimes find that they are a complex mixture of interactions and decisions being made by regulators, by managers, and by employees or unions, or a labour and management and regulator triad. And, so when you talk about what can employers or what can employees or what can regulators do to help with fatigue in the workplace, you almost always enter that triad, that complex interaction and have to start negotiating that problem from a more holistic point of view. And that can, under certain circumstances, be very,  difficult or controversial to do, depending on the relationships that employers, employees and regulators have with each other to begin with. It turns out, however, that if you start talking about fatigue, you spend a little time with the various different parties that are involved, and you start digging...to dig into that topic a little deeper, that you find that at the end of the day, pretty much everybody wants the same thing. Everybody wants less fatigue in the workplace, more safety in the workplace, and, if possible, also more productivity. And these things are not orthogonal. So, what I found is that to make progress in this area, if you can bring the various parties to the table and get them to understand that what they really want is all the same thing and start the dialogue, from that perspective, then then it turns out that the working time arrangements and all the complexities that went into them can also be rearranged with a common goal in mind that makes it better for everybody. Maybe not perfect for anybody, because perfect is oftentimes the enemy of the good, but you can make progress, you can make, improvements.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> DR PETA MILLER</p> <p>So, your point is that consult with everybody, including the workers, and, of course, in Australian legislation that's actually a requirement.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR CLAUDIA ROBERTA DE CASTRO MORENO</p> <p>I just want to add to workers' parts, the workers' side, their families. It's very important to involve the families because the worker himself or herself cannot do nothing alone. So, it's important to involve the families, as well the employers, the government, the regulators, and the workers. If we start from the regulation, you don't...you will probably not reach the workers. And so you need to start together with the workers and their families to support them.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> DR PETA MILLER</p> <p>And what are some practical things that families can do?</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR DIANE BOIVIN</p> <p>OK. Well, your comment, Claudia, also raised the concept of shared responsibility, so everybody has a responsibility to manage fatigue correctly, like the worker, they should use up their rest days to recover the sleep debt, the manager, they should offer condition that allow workers to recuperate between their shifts, and the family also, they have to realise. When I live with a shift worker, it has consequences." So when the person wants to rest, you need to protect that rest. And so, as part of this process, education is extremely important. And I think all levels of the organisation of the family, you know, if they can get educated on what are the challenge of working an atypical schedule, and what can each of them do, that would help tremendously.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> DR PETA MILLER</p> <p>So, I've been hearing over the course of this symposium, Drew, about some of the new technologies and interventions that are out there, and I wondered if you might talk about some of those, and perhaps our other panellists as well. I've heard about things like light therapy or using melatonin. Does any of that work? Is it something that people should be thinking about?</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR DREW DAWSON</p> <p>Well, I think to come back to Diane's point, is that there are a lot of things that you can do, but it isn't a "one size fits all". In fact, it's a "one size doesn't fit most" situation. And I think one of the key messages is that we have seen a shift in the last 10 years, and up until about 10 years ago, the primary control mechanism was the roster and discussions around the roster. I think we've seen the emergence of a whole set of new wearable computing, in-cab monitoring technologies. There's a whole set of very slick fatigue gadgets, as they are sometimes referred to as. And I think they have enormous potential to help with fatigue. But I'd also raise a cautionary note that often in some organisations they're seen as a silver bullet that's going to solve the whole problem. And to come back to Claudia's point, is it takes a family to support a shift worker. And sometimes the appeal of a piece of technology can override the more difficult but more important things that have to be done in terms of the employer's responsibilities, the family and community, the regulators. So I think we're going to see much more sophisticated systems as a result of technology, but I'm also cautious that sometimes they can be very appealing without necessarily having the evidence to support their effectiveness.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> DR PETA MILLER</p> <p>Diane and Claudia and Hans, have you got any comments about the new technologies or new techniques that might be useful, or a myth that they may help?</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR CLAUDIA ROBERTA DE CASTRO MORENO</p> <p>Well, in my case, I have been studying truck drivers for the past 10 years, and I can say, we need to work more on that. We didn't find a very nice technology to help them to really identify when they are sleepy and what they should do, and I think that this is mainly because what they should do is to sleep, and what the employer want...wants is that the truck driver reach that or deliver that...goods, on time. So this is a kind of controversial situation. And so we need to do these things together - technology and the support of the employer - I mean, in order to make the technology work.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR DIANE BOIVIN</p> <p>Yeah, and I share the same opinion. And if we look at,...if we look at, for instance, technology that can predict or evaluate the fitness for duty, I think they can create a false sense of security. Let's say, for instance, you have a worker arrive at the start of a night shift. The alertness can be pretty high and he can be fine at that time, but had he known about the circadian...the way the body clock controls alertness, he would know that at that time of day maybe alertness is high but it's going to dive into a low point at the end of the night. And the challenge is that these technologies should aid in controlling fatigue at work, but they cannot be the solution, because when the fatigue levels are too high, maybe it's too late also. So you need to mix education and discussion and have group of...of employees at various levels within the organisation. And especially higher-level management should embark on this fatigue management initiative.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> DR PETA MILLER</p> <p>And Hans?</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR HANS VAN DONGEN</p> <p>I think one of the tricky parts is when you put technology in the hands of people that can freely obtain and use it, that you have to be careful about the tricky parts of human behaviour. There's an anecdotal example of truck drivers who have drowsy driving warning systems in their trucks and notice that they are being alerted to be drowsy and they decide that obviously they need to have sleep and therefore they start driving faster to make it home sooner, which is the exact wrong solution to the exact right identification of a problem. And so what...as with so many aspects of human behaviour, we know the basic principles, but how it actually plays out in practice is something that continues to be a...a topic of research, and it's really complicated.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> DR PETA MILLER</p> <p>So I think we're beginning to run out of time, so I'm just going to ask all of you to give one concluding practical suggestion for our viewers on what a worker or an employer can be doing to actually minimise the health and safety consequences of fatigue.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR DREW DAWSON</p> <p>I'm going to go for the cultural one and say it's OK to talk about it, and that if we have that dialogue we should be able to solve the problem, and it doesn't always require high-tech solutions. Just knowing that the person you're working with is tired will change the way you observe, interact and regulate their behaviour. And we see that kind of stuff happening in workplaces all the time, so I think there's some very good low-tech solutions that come when people think it's OK to talk about this topic and to share with others when they are fatigued, and particularly with their managers and people within the organisation who are responsible for managing the safety of that organisation.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> DR PETA MILLER</p> <p>So speak up and tell people when you're tired.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR DREW DAWSON</p> <p>Yes.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR CLAUDIA ROBERTA DE CASTRO MORENO</p> <p>Well, I think I could say a number of things, but...I go for the dialogue as well. I think it's more important to, think about education programs that can actually be done in companies, with employers and employees, and also link this to the research world. I mean, this mean...this needs to be, close, very close. We need to work together - the university, researchers, the companies and the real world. I think this is the most important thing.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR DIANE BOIVIN</p> <p>Oh, OK. Yeah, I agree with, all that is said and it's important to talk about it but also to do something about it.</p> <p>And, you know, we're researchers, scientists. We know the problem. We're trying to transfer the knowledge. But probably the solution will come from the workplace environment. So what do you do with this observation about fatigue? What can be done? What do you do if a worker says, "Oh, I think I'm too tired. I'm not fit for duty"? You need to start thinking ahead of time of alternative scenarios, plan B. A B plan, sorry. And... make sure that you are proactive as an organisation and have an open dialogue and... You know, make the workers feel that they can discuss that issue and that something is going to be done about it.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR HANS VAN DONGEN</p> <p>So, we tell people... people like myself will tell people that it would be really great if you could sleep eight hours and if you could do it in the night and you could have a regular schedule and all those things that in shift work settings are basically pretty much impossible. I think the one piece of advice that I would give is be aware of the simple but perhaps not correct solution. We have a tendency to ask, "Just tell me what to do. Just tell me how to solve this problem." And, both from the research perspective and from the organisational perspective we don't necessarily have all the answers yet, which means that we don't...we cannot necessarily give you a one-size-fits-all answer to those complicated questions. But I would also suggest that sometimes the answer has already been found. Sometimes the answer is already in the organisation, in the individuals. They've already come up with a solution to make things work.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> DR PETA MILLER</p> <p>So is that things like having power naps or having better lighting?</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR HANS VAN DONGEN</p> <p>Yeah. So... sanctioned napping in the workplaces can be a really good solution. It depends on the workplace. And in some workplaces we find it works really well. Commuting where you share rides home, to increase safety is an example of that. So, people have found solutions that can, in their particular circumstances, be just perfectly fine. And I would suggest that yes, there is always room for improvement, but don't throw overboard the things you've already figured out that actually do work.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR DIANE BOIVIN</p> <p>And maybe... You make me think about something which is, Hans, very important - that people often, they keep the model of a day...of a normal day-oriented schedule as a goal to achieve. Let's say, try to sleep in one single sleep episode and go as close as we can to, you know, normal behaviour. Actually, this can be quite detrimental in some work organisation, and the model that you have to sleep in one single period can actually increase fatigue. So, it's OK to have split sleep schedule. That can actually help you go through your work roster with minimal alertness impairment. And so you have to think outside of the box, basically.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> DR PETA MILLER</p> <p>So it's more important to get the amount of sleep even if it's not all in one go?</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR DIANE BOIVIN</p> <p>Exactly.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> DR PETA MILLER</p> <p>Thank you very much. Is there anything, any concluding comments that you want? We've heard about a little bit of a power nap... I hear this really strong message about the need...there's no silver bullet. It's about getting enough sleep. I hear a really strong message about talking with workers in the workplace and trying to identify some practical solutions, because shift work is with us whether we like it or not. Are there any final concluding comments that you think that we should be taking home today?</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR DREW DAWSON</p> <p>Again, going back to the notion of dialogue, it's very interesting when you go and talk to organisations and say, Tell us the dumb stuff you do when you're tired," and just having that conversation so people can then work out how to rework the workplace in ways that stops those errors happening. Health care, emergency services, defence, are all full of examples of where people, as Hans has pointed out, are already doing things to manage fatigue well, but they're not formal elements in the safety management system and, in many cases, they're procedural violations, despite the fact that they're making the place safe.</p> <p>That sounds like that's a topic for another conversation, Drew, perhaps offline.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR CLAUDIA ROBERTA DE CASTRO MORENO</p> <p>I'd like to say there is not a single solution. Although we are discussing this in an international meeting, there is not a solution that can fit every country or all companies, different places, different categories of workers. We need to understand that it can be different depending...according to the case. And this, I think, it's my final message.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> DR PETA MILLER</p> <p>What's the role of the health and safety representative, and do they need more information about the health and safety consequences of shift work and long working hours?</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR HANS VAN DONGEN</p> <p>Yeah, I think that's an excellent question, and just like most other, aspects of running a business, it's an expertise that is required to be a part of the organisation to function fully. Just like, bookkeeping and your engineer and your building manager and all these people that have certain expertise, this is an area of expertise that needs to be brought into an organisation that is based on shift work. So if there is a person or a department where that has a natural fit, it stands to reason to make sure that these people are educated on the topic and that they can propagate that knowledge towards the workforce. Now, I would also submit that it's...that, obtaining that knowledge is not something you can just do overnight. That requires some training. And, as we've already discussed in this panel, there is some research that is starting to evolve but isn't really sorted out yet. And so I would submit that with Drew having brought together here a hundred or so experts in the world, maybe designated people in organisations can start to reach out to people like us so that we can then propagate the research and the knowledge base to the organisational officials that can subsequently translate it to the actual workplace.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> DR PETA MILLER</p> <p>I've heard a question from the audience which I think is an excellent one, quite a challenging one, is what's the role of your group to actually feed in to groups like the ILO in terms of informing international conventions on working hours?</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR DREW DAWSON</p> <p>That's a really difficult question, Peta, and it's the $64,000 question in a sense. One of the challenges is that regulatory agencies around the world often try to come up with a one-size-fits-all solution. And we have enough trouble getting a one-size-fits-all solution in one organisation and one group of workers, let alone something that's going to cover everybody all around the world. So, I think the goal of groups like us is to focus people on letting go of prescriptive approaches to legislation. I think promoting performance-based regulatory frameworks is very important. But I'll also make the comment that global and UN-based regulatory bodies are not embracing performance-based regulation or legislation just yet, and I think that's a very slow global process that's going to take decades from its birth in 1972 and the Robens reforms in the UK. I suspect if we come back in 2072 we might start to see that, but I suspect, like most things at a global level, it takes a long time. And I'd be interested in the others' views from different cultures. I think Australia and English-speaking countries in general have pushed very rapidly into the performance-based approaches, especially to fatigue. But I also know in other countries that's not popular, and I know many other countries where the idea of regulating shift work and fatigue is the least of their problems, and they're more worried about a host of other problems before we worry about a few tired shift workers.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> PROFESSOR DIANE BOIVIN</p> <p>Also to add to Drew's comment, what is important is not only consider the work roster, the work shift organisation, but also the workload, because if the workload is low, and the risk associated with being fatigued at work is low, then the work hours can change, and these need to be taken into consideration. And so arriving with, international guidelines that should be followed would, I think, put an organisation at disadvantage in terms of flexibility and really recognising and mitigating their own risk. So they have to be adapted to the nature of the task, the nature of the organisation, and... there needs to be some flexibility.</p> <p><strong>SPEAKER:</strong> DR PETA MILLER</p> <p>I'd just like to thank you all for joining us today in this panel discussion. And I look forward to meeting with you all professionally on another occasion.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-downloadable-transcripts field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><article class="media media--type-file media--view-mode-default"> <div class="field field--name-field-media-file field--type-file field--label-hidden field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-vnd-openxmlformats-officedocument-wordprocessingml-document file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/default/files/managing_shift_work_and_workplace_fatigue_transcript_1.docx" type="application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document">managing_shift_work_and_workplace_fatigue_transcript.docx</a></span> </div> </article> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Thu, 19 Mar 2020 11:13:53 +0000 Fatigue Work-related fatigue and job design https://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/media-centre/work-related-fatigue-and-job-design <div class="node node--type-media node--view-mode-rss layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Body</div> <div class="field__item"><p>In this seminar, Dr Carmel Harrington and Professor Drew Dawson examine why fatigue management is important from both a worker and a business perspective and what businesses and workers can do to manage the risks caused by fatigue in the workplace.</p> <p>They consider the challenges in managing fatigue in shift work design and examine the effectiveness of commonly used controls and how to lead a risk-based approach to fatigue management. Dr Harrington and Professor Dawson will also discuss napping, roster development, and examine the role of employee responsibilities towards mitigating health and safety risks caused by fatigue in the workplace.</p> <p>You will learn that there is no clearly defined line between safe and unsafe fatigue levels, and how to assess whether your workers are exposed to risks related to fatigue.</p> <h2><strong>Who is this seminar for?</strong></h2> <p>This seminar is for all supervisors and managers, including staff who manage rosters and flexible work arrangements, industries and workplaces that use shift work and overnight work and workers undertaking shift work.</p> <h2><strong>About the presenters </strong></h2> <p>Dr Carmel Harrington is Managing Director of Sleep for Health and an Australian sleep scientist whose insights into sleep have helped improve the health and wellbeing of many Australians. She is an honorary research fellow at Westmead Children’s Hospital and a founding member of the Australian Sleep Foundation.</p> <p>Professor Drew Dawson, Director of the Appleton Institute at Central Queensland University, is an internationally acclaimed sleep scientist who is recognised for his work in the areas of sleep and fatigue research, organisational psychology and human behaviour, industrial relations negotiations, and the human implications of hours of work.</p> <h2><strong>Additional resources </strong></h2> <ul> <li><a href="/node/1118">Guide for managing the risk of fatigue at work</a></li> <li><a href="/node/1119">Fatigue management – a worker’s guide</a></li> <li><a href="/node/364">Australian Strategy case study – Use of good work design</a></li> <li><a href="/node/1251">A comparison of work-related injuries among shiftworkers and non-shiftworkers</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <div class="field transcript-group"> <div class="field__label">Transcript</div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-html-transcript field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p align="left">Transcript</p> <p>Safe Work Australia</p> <p align="left">Work-Related Fatigue and Job Design</p> <p>Presented on 5 September 2016</p> <p><br /> <strong>Presented by:</strong></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Mark Goodsell</strong></p> <p>Introduction, MC</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>David Caple</strong></p> <p>Facilitator, MC</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Panellists:</strong><br />  </p> <p align="left">Dr Carmel Harrington<br /> Panellist</p> <p align="left">Professor Drew Dawson<br /> Panellist</p> <div> <hr align="left" size="2" width="1" /></div> <p> </p> <p><strong>Mark Goodsell:</strong></p> <p>Welcome. I’m Mark Goodsell, New South Wales Head for the Australian Industry Group and a Member of Safe Work Australia.</p> <p>Welcome to today’s panel session on work related fatigue as part of Safe Work Australia’s Virtual Seminar Series and National Safe Work Week for 2016.</p> <p>First I’d like to acknowledge the traditional custodians of the land on which we meet, the Ngunnawal people, and recognise and respect their continuing culture and the contribution they make to this city and to this region.</p> <p>Today’s panel discussion is about work related fatigue, fatigue in the workplace. I know many of you will deal with that issue of fatigue in your personal lives, and you’ll have strategies to manage it in your personal lives. But it’s also a very important issue in workplace risk. It doesn’t only impact on the workers’ mental and physical health, it can also impact on the health and safety of those around them in the workplace.</p> <p>At work fatigue can be a function of many factors. It can be a result of mental and physical activity, organisational change, travel, exceptionally hot or cold working environments or work scheduling. It can be further compounded by personal and lifestyle factors such as sleep, health and family commitments.</p> <p>Causes of fatigue can be short term or they can accumulate over time.</p> <p>Every business and every industry is affected to some degree by fatigue, but there are some types of work and some sectors that have an inherently higher risk, particularly when you have shift work.</p> <p>Work schedules such as shift work schedules can impact the time workers have to physically and mentally recover from work. As sleep and rest are the usual way that we recover from physically and mentally demanding tasks, it’s important that we get a good amount and good quality of sleep.</p> <p>It’s important to understand that the length and quality of sleep time, and also the length of time since we last rested, can impact on a worker’s ability to perform efficiently, effectively and safely.</p> <p>Under Australian work health and safety laws, everyone in a workplace has a responsibility to ensure that fatigue does not pose a risk to the health and safety of themselves or to others in their workplace.</p> <p>In today’s discussion we’re going to explore some of the ways that fatigue in a workplace can impact on health and safety and how more effectively it can be managed.</p> <p>We’ll explore the impact that sleep has on our physical and mental health, and how employers can design working hours and rosters that encourage good sleep and recovery opportunities for workers.</p> <p>Our panellists will also take a look at the responsibility that employees have for making sure that their fatigue does not impact on the health and safety of others in their workplace.</p> <p>I’m looking forward to hearing today from the evidence and the data that the panel can share with us to help us all understand the impact of fatigue better.</p> <p>So without further ado, I’m pleased to introduce our panellists for today’s discussion. Dr Carmel Harrington is an Australian sleep scientist whose insights into sleep have helped improve the health and wellbeing of many Australians.</p> <p>She is an Honorary Research Fellow at Westmead Children’s Hospital, and a founding member of the Australian Sleep Foundation. Carmel has also authored two books on sleep, bestselling books, <em>The Sleep Diet</em> and <em>A Complete Guide to a Good Night’s Sleep</em>.</p> <p>We’re also pleased to have Professor Drew Dawson with us today. Drew is a Director of the Appleton Institute and an internationally acclaimed sleep scientist recognised for his work in the area of sleep and fatigue research, organisational psychology and human behaviour, and the human implications of hours of work.</p> <p>Having worked extensively in a number of industries, Drew has instigated fatigue management programmes, particularly in the context of shift work.</p> <p>Finally, today’s facilitator is internationally renowned Professor David Caple. David has over 30 years’ experience as an independent work health and safety consultant, and ten years in corporate and research employment. David is Adjunct Professor at the Centre of Ergonomics and Human Factors at Latrobe University, and a Senior Research Fellow from the Federation University in Ballarat. He’s also a certified ergonomist in Australia and in the US.</p> <p>Would you please join me in welcoming our panellists today as I hand over to David.</p> <p>(applause)</p> <p>David Caple:</p> <p>Thank you Mark. Firstly welcome to our large audience here today. Thank you for making the time to join us. Also welcome to those who are viewing online. This is part of the Virtual Seminar Series, and it’s a pleasure to facilitate this discussion about fatigue at work.</p> <p>I’d like to maybe address my first question to Carmel, because of your extensive research on this area of sleep. Just for the audience, do you want to just highlight what have we learnt from the research in relation to sleep in the context of just what do we need in our general health and wellbeing? I’ve got a colleague who seems to get by on four to six hours a night. I need eight. Others need it at certain times of the day. I’m sure there’s a lot of individual variability, but tell us a bit about what the research has told us about sleep.</p> <p><strong>Dr Carmel Harrington:</strong></p> <p>We know from population studies that the recommended amount of sleep is between seven to nine hours, but it is an individual measure. So as you know, you need eight. I know I need eight and a half. So you sort of need to know what you need and try to get that.</p> <p>But of course there are variations, genetic variations, and there’s a short sleep gene. So about three to four per cent of the community actually only need about five hours sleep to do everything that they need to do in sleep that we mere mortals need seven to nine hours sleep. So you need to be aware of what you need and try to get that. If not, you will be sleep deprived.</p> <p>David Caple:</p> <p>Mark also talked about the quality of sleep. Do you want to just highlight a bit about what do we mean by quality sleep?</p> <p>Dr Carmel Harrington:</p> <p>Well lots of us may spend a lot of time in bed and actually don’t feel refreshed when we wake up. It could be that there’s an underlying sleep disorder there, or indeed we spend three hours in the middle of the night awake. So time in bed is not necessarily a good indicator of the quality of sleep.</p> <p>The big measure is that sleep is meant to make you feel refreshed and rejuvenated when you wake up, able to meet the challenges and the joys of the day. If you feel like that’s not happening, then maybe one of the things you need to be looking at is your sleep.</p> <p>David Caple:</p> <p>So the segue is into what did we learn from this in relation to shift work. Have you got any particular areas of research in looking at the prevention of fatigue in how we approach shift work?</p> <p>Dr Carmel Harrington:</p> <p>Well we know that all of us will suffer mental and physical health consequences if we don’t get enough sleep, or we increase our likelihood of suffering those. This is a little bit more exacerbated in the shift worker, because not only do they generally get less sleep than they need, they also have circadian disruption because they have to work during the night hours. These two things combined seem to increase the likelihood of developing physical ill health or mental ill health.</p> <p>Now the other thing with shift workers, anywhere between five to 20 per cent will develop something called shift work disorder. The hallmark signature of that is inability to get to sleep and/or to maintain sleep, and excessive sleepiness during the day which may not be connected to shift at all.</p> <p>One of the reasons this is really quite a negative thing for the shift worker to develop is because it absolutely affects their quality of life and increases their chance of developing severe depression.</p> <p>David Caple:</p> <p>Drew, feel free to comment on your research on this relationship with shift work, but in doing so, do you want to talk us through about how we’ve tried to administratively manage it through originally this prescriptive approach towards shift work and movement towards a risk based approach? Maybe just tell us about your research in that area.</p> <p>Professor Drew Dawson:</p> <p>I think there’s been a trend perhaps for the last 20 years. Twenty years ago the assumption was that we will negotiate our rules of rostering, and that if we agree on a set of rules for rostering as part of our Enterprise Bargaining Agreement, then those rules will constitute a safe system of work.</p> <p>I think what we saw historically happen was that third party representation rights disappeared from the Industrial Relations Commission back in the mid ‘90s, and there has been a lot of economic changes in Australia over the last 20 or 30 years.</p> <p>The net result of that is lots of people agree to rules of rostering that are probably demonstrably unsafe. That is because either they wanted to make more money or the organisation wanted the productivity gains. From around about the Parliamentary inquiry in 2000 called the Midnight Oil Inquiry, there was a recommendation to the Government that we should approach shift work from a risk based approach. The idea behind a risk based approach is to say that effectively fatigue is with us always. It’s impossible to develop a shift work system that will have people not being fatigued.</p> <p>The net consequence of that is there’s a fundamental shift. That is instead of thinking about I’m compliant with my rules of rostering therefore it’s safe, it’s about saying what’s the likelihood that my staff will be fatigued and what level of control do I need to implement within the workforce in order to manage that risk.</p> <p>We’ve seen this shift to what’s called performance based approaches to safety since the Robens review in 1972, and it’s been a very long process. H.L. Mencken famously said ‘for every complex problem there’s a simple solution, and it’s usually wrong,’ and nowhere is that probably more relevant than the area of shift work and rules of rostering.</p> <p>It’s been challenging for organisations to work out how to risk assess a roster and how to work out what controls I should or shouldn’t have in place. The reason for this is that the risk profile for different jobs can be quite different, and people don’t like sometimes the complexity associated with this.</p> <p>David Caple:</p> <p>So maybe Carmel if the comfort is to say ‘Well at least we’ve complied with the regulations,’ how do we address this individual difference that you’re talking about so that the individuals feel engaged in this process?</p> <p>Dr Carmel Harrington:</p> <p>See this is the real risk isn’t it? We can comply with regulation without engaging in the spirit of the regulation, which is actually to make us safer and the workplace safer. So how do we engage the individual? I think education is one of the keys.</p> <p>People make decisions about the hours they work and the amount they sleep based on perceived economic and performance benefits. But they often make those decisions without being fully informed of the true cost. So I think it’s really important that we start to talk about the true cost and allow these people to make informed decisions.</p> <p>Now I liken it to when – these days we might have a bar of chocolate or a piece of cake, but we know it’s wrong, it’s not good for us, but we’ll do it anyway. But lots of people are making decisions about sleep and their lack of without actually knowing the true consequences. So the very first step we need to do is engage them in that bit of information. Of course they can continue to make ill-informed and bad decisions from our perspective, but they may have very good reasons to ignore the information we’re telling them.</p> <p>The other thing I think we need to do is engage people in education in modern technology. Not so many companies anyway actually provide education materials, and there’s little research to support that it works. But a lot of the education materials actually don’t get to the night shift worker, so how do we do it better? I think we can use mobile technology.</p> <p>Apps have been developed. There was a study published last year with pilots, and it was an app education. So what they did is not only did they get information on sleep and fatigue management, but they were given a very practical application so they could key in when was your flight going, what time zones you’re going to move to, etcetera, etcetera. So they could organise their sleep, their fatigue management and their nutrition so that a better outcome.</p> <p>What they found at the six month mark, the pilots had actually engaged – it was only 50 per cent they’d engaged, but the pilots that did engage actually had better fatigue management, better sleep quality and better nutrition. So we can do education better and we can engage the personal by making it personal.</p> <p>David Caple:</p> <p>Drew, do you want to comment on that?</p> <p>Professor Drew Dawson:</p> <p>I think there’s a couple of interesting points there. One I’d like to make is that the research tells us that half the time that somebody is fatigued in the workplace, it’s due to non-work related causes. They’ve been up with a sick child or they’re driving back from somewhere after a holiday.</p> <p>Half the risk in Australian workplaces comes from factors that are under the control of the employees outside of the workplace. So I think one of the big areas, the low fruit here, is to start to think about how we manage that aspect of it. I think going back to Carmel’s point about education, if we look at what happened with alcohol and drug regulation from the ‘70s – I remember going to work in the ‘70s where drink driving was funny. We’ve gone through a process over the last 30 or 40 years where that’s fundamentally changed.</p> <p>I think from an education perspective we need to say to people ‘This is how much sleep you need in order to work safely,’ in the same way as we say ‘You can’t have more alcohol or a certain type of drug in your system than this amount in order to work safely’. People will say ‘But we’ve had individual differences and there’s a short sleep gene,’ and all of that kind of stuff.</p> <p>But I’m also going to make the point there are huge inter-individual differences in the effects of alcohol on people or drugs on their cognitive capacity or error rates. It doesn’t stop us as a community making that decision, and I suspect the research tells us that somewhere between six hours on a regular basis most people most of the time, if they fall below that threshold, will be at about double the risk of accident or injury. In a single night they go below five hours sleep, we can show measurable impairment that’s inconsistent with a safe system of work.</p> <p>What’s really interesting is from a cultural perspective the argument that was put forward in the ‘70s is we can’t make blood alcohol 0.08 or 0.05 or 0.01, because everybody is different. We see exactly the same argument now with sleep, and my point would be we need to give people clear guidelines to say ‘If you’ve had less than this amount of sleep, tell someone’.</p> <p>David Caple:</p> <p>The ‘tell someone’ is the duty under the Act to look after yourself, look after your colleagues, inform your supervisor in the context of what may be happening out of work.</p> <p>Professor Drew Dawson:</p> <p>Yes. This has been a very controversial area, because under a lot of workplaces the culture is not such that that may necessarily be well interpreted. Our general recommendations to workplaces are you may report it to your supervisor and your manager on the day, but if it happens more often than one would expect, then that needs to be managed by an employee assistance programme or an occupational hygienist or somebody outside of the employee/supervisor relationship, mainly because the supervisors often aren’t sufficiently skilled and there are authority gradients and power differentials that make that a very complicated conversation.</p> <p>David Caple:</p> <p>So just in the context of those who do have to work 24/7 like medical specialists in the hospitals in acute care, you’ve talked about self-management of fatigue. Can you tell us a bit more about that and how that assists them with their cognitive performance in looking after us as a community member?</p> <p>Professor Drew Dawson:</p> <p>It’s a difficult area, but also one of the most exciting new areas in fatigue research, which is in many industries we don’t have an unlimited number of staff. So for example with some work we did for Queensland Health, we went to the community and said ‘How many hours do you think a doctor should work?’ and they said ’12 to 16 should be the maximum’.</p> <p>Then we said ‘Well if we did that, we’re about 800 doctors short. Would you rather a tired doctor or no doctor at all?’ Of course overwhelmingly the community said ‘No, a tired doctor will be fine thank you’. So again it’s a really complex risk equation here that you need to think about. I think one of the things that we need to think about is for many organisations how to work safely whilst fatigued has become a very important area of redesigning workplaces in ways that people can work safely whilst fatigued.</p> <p>Our research for example in the aviation industry shows that if the pilot tells the co-pilot or vice versa that the other person is fatigued, they’re much more likely to detect an error by that individual and therefore to reduce the risks associated with that.</p> <p>Similarly in hospitals, if a team is doing a handover and lets other people know what the fatigue levels are, people unsurprisingly are more conscious of that. So we’ve been doing a lot of work in the last couple of years about how do you identify that you’re fatigued and how do you redesign the work task in ways that you can operate in what we call fatigue mode.</p> <p>So building on the threat and error management literature, we have worked with a number of aviation partners, and they will say ‘at a certain level of fatigue we will operate in fatigue mode’. I won’t go into how we define that, but to say in very simple terms if you reach a certain level of fatigue on the flight deck or in the operating theatre, tell people and do things differently.</p> <p>So surgeons will consciously slow down, and they will empower people to challenge them in the event that they make a mistake. So this redesign or re-proceduralisation of the workplace is a very significant way that we can reduce risk even when people are tired.</p> <p>David Caple:</p> <p>So Carmel, just in terms of say a simple analogy in the manufacturing industry where somebody does a particular sequence of tasks and they’re fatigued, what do you see in the research as the consequence to their behaviour when something goes wrong with that particular model?</p> <p>Dr Carmel Harrington:</p> <p>We know when we’re tired our ability to react to a new piece of information is quite impaired. So while we can do automatic tasks, A, B, C, quite comfortably, if we go A, B, C, F, we’re not quite sure how to incorporate F. So to put that in everyday language, many of us have driven home tired, and some of us may not remember how we got home because we’ve done the drive automatically. We do it. We can do it night after night. But if someone runs across the road or something happens, we can’t react to it because cognitively we’re impaired.</p> <p>That’s what happens, and that’s why we have these people who do a job for 20 years really, really well and on one night an absolute catastrophe happens, because a new piece of information has come across.</p> <p>So it really is important. I couldn’t agree more about alerting people about fatigue. We have conversations now about – in fact we applaud people who exercise and who are fit. We applaud people who have a good diet and eat good food, and we talk about it in the workplace. ‘I’m having a salad today,’ or ‘I’m doing this, that and the other’. We need to have a conversation around ‘I slept really well last night,’ and rather than it being a demerit because you haven’t slept well and ‘I’m going to have to be performance managed because I’m not sleeping well,’ the declaration that ‘I am taking my sleep seriously because I want to be the best version of me and be really productive and safe at work,’ should be an open conversation and one that we encourage.</p> <p>The start of that is actually this fatigue mode, a declaration of ‘Okay, I’m too long on task, or I haven’t had the best lead up period to this. I’m fatigued. How are we going to best manage it?’ It’s an open conversation. We shouldn’t try to put it under the carpet, because that’s where big mistakes begin to happen.</p> <p>David Caple:</p> <p>So just in the context where you do have people who work night shifts regularly, there’s a lot of debate about should we allow them to nap or power nap or whatever the term is. What’s the research telling us about that?</p> <p>Dr Carmel Harrington:</p> <p>Napping is good for all of us. So we can all benefit from a brief nap of about 20 minutes. The reason we say 20 minutes is because we want to stay in the light sleep. We don’t want to get into the deep sleep which will increase the likelihood of waking up with sleep inertia, which is that feeling of disorientation and lethargy, and it takes some time to dissipate.</p> <p>On balance the literature shows that a nap of 20 minutes in the early hours of the morning, probably between 1:00 and 3:00, are quite beneficial, and it will increase your alertness for a period of time. Naps taken after that time not as beneficial, and increase the likelihood of sleep inertia. Certainly napping can be used to good benefit for night shift workers, but also sleeping prior to your evening or night shift, because of course fatigue is not just a matter of sleep duration, but it’s length of time awake beforehand as well. So we can actually have either a short nap before our shift, or even a complete sleep of about 90 to 110 minutes.</p> <p>Of course the caveat is always be aware of sleep inertia, and it might take up to 60 minutes for that to dissipate if you wake up from deep sleep.</p> <p>David Caple:</p> <p>You’ve done some research on this Drew.</p> <p>Professor Drew Dawson:</p> <p>Yes. I mean broadly speaking I would agree with what Carmel says, but one of the things that I think she hit on earlier which is quite important is the culture within the organisation. I think one of the things that’s important to understand is that many organisations, fatigue is what we call a forbidden topic or a taboo narrative. If you’re an anthropologist, these are the things that you can’t talk about. The reasons for this are simple. I’ve sat in many EBA negotiations and it’s ‘Don’t mention fatigue, because it’s going to cost 10 per cent in the next EBA or it’s secret code for overtime reduction strategy or many of the other implications of it’.</p> <p>I think organisations need to think really carefully about this. One of the things that we’ve noticed is, in terms of understanding the risk profile of people in a workplace, just going to people and saying ‘Tell us the dumb stuff you do when you’re fatigued’. If you sit around with a group of ten of 15 people, they will tell you all of the dumb things that get done when people are fatigued, and that provides you a very good starting point to start to think about how could we redesign or re‑proceduralise so these are less likely to cause an accident or the consequences are reduced.</p> <p>So I think it’s really important for organisations to think ‘How do we have this discussion? How do we embark upon this forbidden narrative?’ I guess my advice would be do it out of the context of the EBA. Our experience is once you’re in an EBA that’s a really bad time, because there are so many financial and cultural tensions around the topic.</p> <p>The other point being is that if you do have that conversation outside of the context of the EBA, people are actually quite happy to talk about it. They’ll tell you all the dumb stuff they did and they’ll tell you how to fix it. But we just don’t allow that conversation to happen within our workplaces.</p> <p>David Caple:</p> <p>I suppose let’s talk a little bit about the white collar workers who don’t necessarily do shift work but experience fatigue. Have you got any evidence about fatigue in their industry sector?</p> <p>Professor Drew Dawson:</p> <p>Yes. Well not comprehensive evidence, but we’ve done a number of consulting and research jobs with big oil, and I remember very clearly the work with BP and Shell which showed that when we looked at fatigue related accidents, they were much more likely to happen for middle level managers, sales managers, people on the road, than they were to happen on the mine so to speak. That is unregulated working hours are much more likely to happen in junior and middle managers than they are in heavily industrialised workforces.</p> <p>Again, because there aren’t Unions, there aren’t EBAs and there are staff contracts as they say, the coercive pressure of the organisation to work long hours can actually lead to quite unsafe work practices, particularly around extended commuting. So people will work their day and then drive to the next place they have to be the following day, and sometimes they can be clocking 16 to 20 hour days with extended commuting.</p> <p>David Caple:</p> <p>So Carmel with 16 to 20 hour days, I mean what’s the research telling us about our cognitive capacities?</p> <p>Dr Carmel Harrington:</p> <p>Well after about 16 or 17 hours your cognitive capacity is at the same level as 0.05 alcohol consumption. So clearly we’re not thinking very well when we have – our body clock is set up so that when we awake in the morning and expose ourselves to sunlight, about 16 hours later our body is ready to sleep. We seem to forget that sleep forms a vital function, and everyone wants to put sleep off. Everyone thinks ‘I haven’t got time to sleep’.</p> <p>But we have such enormous cognitive deficits when we don’t sleep. Any performance gains that we think we’re making due to not sleeping and staying awake, are actually just in the air, they’re not actually happening. We don’t make performance gains.</p> <p>To the point of what’s happening with the non-shift worker, with the rise of the mobile office, everyone’s available. We’ve all got our iPhone, we’ve all got our iPad. A study of Australian workers last year found that one in four day workers actually got less than the recommended seven to nine. One in four of the workers only sometimes got seven hours sleep, and one in four workers felt extremely tired or completely exhausted and thought it was really affecting their physical and mental health and their social interaction.</p> <p>So it’s not just shift workers, and again the commuting that these people do at that level, they’re causing a lot of issues outside of their own particular selves.</p> <p>David Caple:</p> <p>So your research has looked at the influence of the 24 hour cycle in building these rosters. Have you got any advice in relation to roster structuring and the relationship to your research on sleep?</p> <p>Dr Carmel Harrington:</p> <p>There’s no silver bullet. Everyone knows that. There’s no silver bullet here. When we think about shift roster, the shift itself is not going to solve the problem because there’s so many other variables. So how long is the person’s commute to work? What’s their domestic situation? Do they have an underlying sleep disorder that’s not giving them good quality sleep? What sort of chronotype are they? Do they like mornings or do they like the evenings because we know that allows them to tolerate shift better?</p> <p>So we need to keep that into account when we think about shift rosters, and put it in the design in a way if we can. We also need to realise that optimal shift time and work life balance for the shift worker may not play out against what’s best for the broader community, because the longer time on shift, if we have extended 12 hour shifts, we’re increasing the risk to the broader community when that person either is driving a big truck or a train or whatever.</p> <p>So there is a tendency to the 12 hour shift length, and whether or not that’s a good thing or not is really to be debateable. Even though employees like it because it compresses their work week and gives them more time with their family, employers like it because it makes their shift rostering easier, but it actually increases their risk of injury at the end of the shift. So it’s all this sort of balancing.</p> <p>But there are some things that we know about shift rostering and design that we’ve learnt over the last 40 years. This is a pretty new area of research – sleep, shift work, fatigue management. It’s only really been around for 40 or 50 years, and we’re learning a lot. We have to start implementing what we’ve learnt. So we know that fast forward rotating shifts probably work well, because they minimise or reduce circadian disruption, increase access increased sleep duration.</p> <p>Morning shifts, early start morning shifts are to be avoided, because shifts that start before 7:00 o’clock in the morning actually decrease sleep duration because people have the imperative for staying up at night anyway and watching TV and socialising, and it actually increases sleepiness. So we shouldn’t start shifts too early in the morning.</p> <p>A number of consecutive shifts in a row actually decrease alertness and increase sleepiness, and extending the 12 hour shift, so you do overtime at the end of the 12 hour shift, actually just increases your injury risk and should be avoided I think.</p> <p>So it’s a complex balance of how we design shift rosters, but it’s also looking at the individual. So I’m going back to this individual story as well. So what are the particular vulnerabilities of the worker? So do they have an underlying sleep disorder? If they do, it needs to be addressed. So they will feel better about themselves, but they’ll be more productive.</p> <p>The other thing we know over the years is that whether you’re an owl or a lark really affects your ability to tolerate shift work. Now giving the worker information about themselves, as simple as ‘Do you prefer the morning or do you prefer the night,’ actually engages the personal and may improve their uptake of fatigue management strategies, which we know is probably not as good as it should be. So engaging that personal is really important.</p> <p>With shift design and rostering, we should put in things that we know work. So napping is something I think should be recognised in the workplace, especially at night shift. Good lighting as well, we know that can be alerting, and there’s some great emerging research coming out showing that the red wavelength, the warmer wavelength is alerting but doesn’t suppress melatonin as much.</p> <p>So there’s lots of things we can do and there’s opportunities that we now have to start implementing things, but at the same time making sure the individual is engaged in this and we can move forward together. It’s not just the roster and it’s not just the duration of the shift, it’s not just anything.</p> <p>David Caple:</p> <p>I just wonder Drew, if you think back to the research over the 40 odd years, have we come a long way in this space?</p> <p>Professor Drew Dawson:</p> <p>Well I’m going to take a slightly different point of view, and say people have been sitting around trying to work out the perfect roster for about 80 years, and a lot of really smart people have sat down and they haven’t solved the problem yet. So maybe we need to think about this a bit differently.</p> <p>Going back to what Carmel said earlier, I would make the suggestion that people need a working time arrangement, including shift work for operational needs. The secret is to then go back and say ‘How much sleep are you getting,’ and to get the answer to that question, and that can be done through both formal risk assessment techniques, but also by talking to people. I think if you’re finding that there are significant periods of time where people are averaging less than six hours a night, you’ve probably got a problem and you need to control those risks. If you don’t, then maybe it’s less of a concern.</p> <p>But I have come to the point after 20 years of looking at this, the idea of thinking I can come up with a perfect set of rules that compliance will ensure safety, the research tells us that there is too much variability between individuals, between workplaces, between tasks for that to actually be an effective strategy. I suspect like many things in life we should stop banging our head against the wall, because it will feel really good when we do.</p> <p>David Caple:</p> <p>Let’s take a little rest from that and just see whether we’ve got any questions from the audience who’d like to contribute to our discussion this morning.</p> <p>Would you like to just stand up and introduce yourself first?</p> <p><strong>Q&amp;A Session</strong></p> <p>Q:          Thank you. My name is Mark Smith, and I’m from Safe Work Australia. My question is from the perspective of businesses who are looking for quick wins. Now what are some of the easily fixed mistakes that you see around managing fatigue, from the perspective of these businesses?</p> <p>Professor Drew Dawson:</p> <p>I think the low fruit is around non-work related causes of fatigue. That is for many organisations wrestling with the roster and the EBA is a lot of pain for very, very little gain. On the other hand, thinking about the culture and saying to people ‘Tell us the dumb stuff you do when you’re fatigued and how can we stop that happening,’ asking them about how much sleep people are getting, enables organisations to do a pretty quick and dirty risk assessment and then to work out ‘Do I need a little bit of control or do I need a lot of control?’</p> <p>I think there are enough tools around now in the marketplace that enable people to do pretty reasonable risk assessment, and to assess the likely effectiveness of controls. But I would qualify that to say that we haven’t done the research in enough detail to say ‘This control will work like this in your organisation’. For most organisations now, we’re recommending what we call post‑implementation surveillance. Put it in place and look at it. Don’t assume compliance equals safety, and don’t assume that a control will work just because you put it in place.</p> <p>So that normal process of put it in place, evaluate it, corrective action and that do loop make a lot of sense, and enable you to deal with the complexity of workplace individual tasks etcetera.</p> <p>David Caple:</p> <p>Carmel, do you want to make any quick win comments?</p> <p>Dr Carmel Harrington:</p> <p> I think with quick win sometimes, especially in the white collar worker, it comes from the head. So if your employer is deeming productivity equals time behind the desk, then you’re going to spend a lot of time behind the desk and you’re going to be sleep deprived. So really it means taking on board that probably somebody can’t work efficiently much more than 45 hours a week, so don’t expect your worker to do that, because you’re going to have burnout and all the consequences, lost productivity.</p> <p>So I’d be looking at don’t wear lack of sleep on your heart as a badge of honour, because it isn’t.</p> <p>David Caple:</p> <p>You made the point before about the greyness between work and life balance. Do you see that as an emerging issue we need to think more about, particularly with the accessibility of technology?</p> <p>Dr Carmel Harrington:</p> <p>Absolutely. I do a lot of work with children and they observe their parents always on the iPhone or the iPad or whatever, and they deem success as this, and that’s what kids are doing, and we’re seeing right down to little ones not getting anywhere near enough sleep.</p> <p>There’s a quote from one of the grandfathers of sleep that says that if sleep doesn’t serve some vital function, then it’s the biggest mistake the evolutionary process ever made. That’s true. We know that little kids need more sleep than big kids, and big kids need more sleep than adults. We’re seeing this complete greyness around sleep, because life is so exciting. We have a thing now called FOMO, fear of missing out. So even when you think ‘I’m not going to look at my emails until tomorrow morning,’ you might just sneak a look just in case you’ve missed out on something. Chances are the world is not going to stop or blow up because you haven’t looked at your email overnight.</p> <p>So we’re losing our respect for sleep, and we’re losing the discipline around sleep. We had it 50 years ago, because 50 years ago if anyone rang your house up at 8:00 o’clock at night someone had died. They didn’t do it. At 12:00 o’clock at night the TV went off. They’d say ‘Goodnight from us and goodnight to you,’ and we had nothing to keep us awake. We would sleep. We don’t do it now, and we’re seeing the consequences.</p> <p>David Caple:</p> <p>Do you see these social pressures changing sleep?</p> <p>Professor Drew Dawson:</p> <p>Yes, but I think part of the thing is to respect those choices and to understand that in many cases the decision for a student to study all night and end up in a fabulous course and to have a fabulous career may be a good short term arrangement. I think part of the difficulty I see – and this is probably a little controversial – is that there is kind of a catastrophising that goes over sleep. I’d point out that anything that we do that’s important with sleep will be a very plastic behaviour, otherwise we wouldn’t have evolved to the point where we are.</p> <p>So I think when we look at education programmes, I think telling people the world will end if they don’t sleep is a bit like telling kids ‘Drugs will kill you,’ and I think a harm minimisation model rather than a model of catastrophising it to people is probably likely to be more successful, because it allows people to say ‘Every once in a while I am going to stay up all night and party, and the effects on my social life will be fabulous’.</p> <p>I’d also make the comment, and a couple of very famous sleep researchers have worked in this area, which is to say people slept a long time in the olden days because there wasn’t anything else to do. We used to exercise a lot, because we had to. That is the world is changing, and I suspect if you approach kids in particular, catastrophising sleep, they’re just going to look at you the same way that they do when you try to talk to them about drugs and alcohol and all of those kind of things. So I think it’s a complex cultural thing that we need to look at. I’d say the same thing with employees, is that sometimes going on a holiday and getting back the last thing before you start work does have advantages.</p> <p>I think if we think about it from a harm minimisation perspective, we’re probably going to get a better reception than catastrophising, ‘The world is going to end’.</p> <p>Dr Carmel Harrington:</p> <p>Couldn’t agree more, but I think again along those same lines, information is key. Choose not to make the decision for all sorts of reasons. ‘I want to have the best party tonight, and I know alcohol interferes with my sleep but I’m going to have a drink anyway’. Make the decision, but make it on an informed basis rather than just thinking it’s okay, and ‘I’ve got no idea why I didn’t sleep very well last night,’ which is what happens with people.</p> <p>So that level of information is really key, and again, you make everything dire and everything’s going to end, everyone switches off anyway. They don’t engage. So it’s not black and it’s not white, but information I think is key.</p> <p>Professor Drew Dawson:</p> <p>I think one of the other things that’s quite interesting is pay it back. Have a big night, pay it back. So catch up. Got to bed early the next night when that sleep was not displacing fun activities. I think that’s part of the challenge about how do we get people to think about it in a culturally sophisticated way that will actually result in behaviour change?</p> <p>David Caple:</p> <p>Another question. Yes?</p> <p style="margin-left: 36pt;"><em>Q:        Helen Righton. I’m also from Safe Work Australia. Just following on on that last point actually in terms of paying it back. How much? Is the research quantifying how much you need to pay back per hour missed, or any other way of knowing when you’ve actually caught up? How do you do it? How do you get that time?</em></p> <p> </p> <p>Professor Drew Dawson:</p> <p>This is the good news. Everybody says you can’t pay sleep back. We ran a series of studies over the last five years where we sleep deprived people up to 48 hours of continuous sleep loss, and some went as far as 64 hours. All of those people returned to normal cognitive function with two nine and a half hour sleeps.</p> <p>So you don’t actually have to – the body is very good at sleeping efficiently or sleeping faster as we like to say. So the good news is you don’t have to necessarily pay it back hour for hour. If you can that’s great, but we would suggest if you shorten your sleep by a certain amount, you probably only have to pay back half of that to regain the function, because there is some plasticity. If you’re tired, the brain sleeps faster.</p> <p>That’s a controversial view, because some people want to catastrophise things. But I suspect if you pay it back at 50 cents in the dollar, you’re probably going to be fine.</p> <p>Dr Carmel Harrington:</p> <p>The point at which you know you’ve paid it back is when you feel well, you feel good. So you wake up thinking ‘I’m okay’. That’s really important. Sometimes we miss the most obvious. We talk about fatigue measures and risk, and that’s really important, but are you yawning? Are your eyelids drooping? Well chances are you’ve got a fatigue issue on your hands. Let’s make some things quite practical.</p> <p>Say for example when we have young children or we’ve got a big exam or gone on a great party holiday, we come back or whatever and we feel really exhausted. Then we have a few sleeps and we feel good. We know we’ve rested sufficiently. But my thing though is too to realise on a regular basis what you ideally would require. Try to get it. Your body is really adaptable and it does adapt to situations, but if you get what you need on a pretty regular basis you’re going to be optimal health.</p> <p>Professor Drew Dawson:</p> <p>We have a very simple strategy which we’ll talk to people from a clinical perspective, is ‘Do you need an alarm clock to wake up?’ If you need an alarm clock to wake up, you’re not getting enough sleep. That’s a very simple way of making that decision.</p> <p>David Caple:</p> <p>So what about those of us that do need an alarm clock because we’ve got a long way to drive or we’ve got to catch an aeroplane?</p> <p>Professor Drew Dawson:</p> <p>Go to bed earlier. That’s not without its challenges, because there’s lots of fun things to do in the evening.</p> <p>Dr Carmel Harrington:</p> <p>But the other thing is too, I mean some people, they have a 4:00 o’clock flight to catch – you can’t catch a flight at 4:00 o’clock can you – but a really early morning flight, so they need to get up at 4:00 o’clock in the morning and they think they’re going to go to sleep really early. They go to bed say at 8:00 o’clock, 8:30 hoping to go to sleep, but at that point in time your circadian alertness is on the rise, so you are not going to fall asleep very easily. The longer you stay in bed not falling asleep due to your physiology of alertness, the more anxious you become. So you start producing these anxiety hormones, so you get the worst night’s sleep possible rather than the best night’s sleep possible.</p> <p>So sometimes I think more practically is okay, you’ve got to make sure you go to sleep or go to bed after the peak of your alertness that night, and if you get a slightly shortened sleep that night, make sure you sleep more the next night. So it’s this idea of balance isn’t it, always.</p> <p>Professor Drew Dawson:</p> <p>I’ve been amazed when you go to China how many people sleep on the train that they got up early for. In fact if you catch many of the red eyes or the early morning flights on Qantas, you’ll see a lot of people sleeping. That’s not such a bad thing.</p> <p>David Caple:</p> <p>We’re running out of time, so I’m just wondering for each of you if you want to leave the audience here and watching online some key messages of where we are in 2016 at the moment on the research on fatigue management, shift work, work, sleep?</p> <p>Professor Drew Dawson:</p> <p>I think probably the single most important thing for an organisation to do is to say managing fatigue is not an industrial enterprise bargaining agreement issue, it’s actually a safety issue, and it’s okay to talk about it. Our experience is once an organisation makes the decision to talk about fatigue as a safety issue, they’re pretty good at solving it. It’s only when it gets tied up in money and productivity and all of those factors and becomes a forbidden narrative, that then everybody ignores it and it creates problems.</p> <p>Dr Carmel Harrington:</p> <p>I think maybe the take home message is not just about the employer providing a safe workplace, because most are engaged in doing that. It’s about the individual engaging as well in their own personal safety and fatigue management, because it’s a collaboration between the two. We can’t have someone saying ‘This is what you’re going to do,’ because we’ll find ways around it. So let’s engage the individual in the whole story and we may well move forward with fatigue management.</p> <p>David Caple:</p> <p>Great. So thank you for the studio audience for your interest and participation, and thank you to all those that are watching us online. Thank you to Drew and thank you to Carmel. I’ll ask you to join me to thank you together. So thank you very much.</p> <p>(applause)</p> <p>[End of Transcript]</p> <p> </p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-downloadable-transcripts field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><article class="media media--type-file media--view-mode-default"> <div class="field field--name-field-media-file field--type-file field--label-hidden field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-vnd-openxmlformats-officedocument-wordprocessingml-document file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/default/files/2016-027_transcript_fatigue_0.docx" type="application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document">2016-027_transcript_fatigue.docx</a></span> </div> </article> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Thu, 19 Mar 2020 11:13:53 +0000 Fatigue A comparison of work-related injuries among shiftworkers and non-shiftworkers https://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/doc/comparison-work-related-injuries-among-shiftworkers-and-non-shiftworkers <div class="node node--type-document node--view-mode-rss layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field-overview"> <div class="field__label">Overview</div> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Research has shown that the injury rate for shiftworkers is higher than the injury rate for non-shiftworkers. The aim of this report is to determine whether the elevated risk of shiftwork affects all groups of shiftworkers or only particular groups of shiftworkers. This is achieved by analysing statistics from a nationally representative survey that was undertaken in 2013–14. The report also analyses the characteristics and outcomes of work-related injuries to determine whether there are significant differences between shiftworkers and non-shiftworkers.</p> </div> <div class="field-downloads"> <h2 class="field__label">Downloads</h2> <div class="field field--name-field-document-info field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--document-info paragraph--view-mode--swa-document-first-item"> <ul class="document-tiles direct-dl-files row"> <li class="field field--name-field-file-information field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items col-sm-4"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--file-information paragraph--view-mode--swa-document-full-view"> <a href="/system/files/documents/1702/comparison-of-work-related-injuries-shiftworkers-and-non-shiftworkers.pdf" title="comparison-of-work-related-injuries-shiftworkers-and-non-shiftworkers.pdf" class="tile type-pdf"><div class="document-icon"></div> <p class="link-type"><span class="visually-hidden">comparison-of-work-related-injuries-shiftworkers-and-non-shiftworkers.pdf</span> PDF</p> <p class="file-size">562.7 KB</p> <div class="file-meta"> <div class="field field--name-field-isbn field--type-string field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">ISBN</div> <div class="field__item">978-1-76028-823-5</div> </div> </div> </a> </div> </div> </li> <li class="field field--name-field-file-information field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items col-sm-4"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--file-information paragraph--view-mode--swa-document-full-view"> <a href="/system/files/documents/1702/comparison-of-work-related-injuries-shiftworkers-and-non-shiftworkers.docx" title="comparison-of-work-related-injuries-shiftworkers-and-non-shiftworkers.docx" class="tile type-docx"><div class="document-icon"></div> <p class="link-type"><span class="visually-hidden">comparison-of-work-related-injuries-shiftworkers-and-non-shiftworkers.docx</span> DOCX</p> <p class="file-size">171.13 KB</p> <div class="file-meta"> <div class="field field--name-field-isbn field--type-string field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">ISBN</div> <div class="field__item">978-1-76028-823-5</div> </div> </div> </a> </div> </div> </li> </ul> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Publication date</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2016-08-24T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">24 Aug 2016</time> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-document-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Document type</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/171" hreflang="en">Statistical reports</a></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Tag by Category</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/24" hreflang="en">Health and wellbeing</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/64" hreflang="en">Statistics</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/72" hreflang="en">Workers</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-tag-by-topic field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Tag by Topic</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/78" hreflang="en">Fatigue</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/138" hreflang="en">Statistics</a></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Thu, 19 Mar 2020 11:13:53 +0000 Fatigue Fatigue management - a worker's guide https://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/doc/fatigue-management-workers-guide <div class="node node--type-document node--view-mode-rss layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field-overview"> <div class="field__label">Overview</div> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>This Guide provides practical guidance for workers on how to manage fatigue to ensure it does not contribute to health and safety risks in the workplace.</p> </div> <div class="field-downloads"> <h2 class="field__label">Downloads</h2> <div class="field field--name-field-document-info field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--document-info paragraph--view-mode--swa-document-first-item"> <ul class="document-tiles direct-dl-files row"> <li class="field field--name-field-file-information field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items col-sm-4"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--file-information paragraph--view-mode--swa-document-full-view"> <a href="/system/files/documents/1702/fatigue-management-a-workers-guide.docx" title="fatigue-management-a-workers-guide.docx" class="tile type-docx"><div class="document-icon"></div> <p class="link-type"><span class="visually-hidden">fatigue-management-a-workers-guide.docx</span> DOCX</p> <p class="file-size">680.17 KB</p> <div class="file-meta"> <div class="field field--name-field-isbn field--type-string field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">ISBN</div> <div class="field__item">978-1-74361-262-0</div> </div> </div> </a> </div> </div> </li> <li class="field field--name-field-file-information field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items col-sm-4"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--file-information paragraph--view-mode--swa-document-full-view"> <a href="/system/files/documents/1702/fatigue-management-a-workers-guide.pdf" title="fatigue-management-a-workers-guide.pdf" class="tile type-pdf"><div class="document-icon"></div> <p class="link-type"><span class="visually-hidden">fatigue-management-a-workers-guide.pdf</span> PDF</p> <p class="file-size">130.54 KB</p> <div class="file-meta"> <div class="field field--name-field-isbn field--type-string field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">ISBN</div> <div class="field__item">978-1-74361-262-0</div> </div> </div> </a> </div> </div> </li> </ul> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Publication date</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2013-11-27T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">27 Nov 2013</time> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-document-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Document type</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/160" hreflang="en">Guidance materials</a></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Tag by Category</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/24" hreflang="en">Health and wellbeing</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-tag-by-topic field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Tag by Topic</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/78" hreflang="en">Fatigue</a></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Thu, 19 Mar 2020 11:13:53 +0000 Fatigue Guide for managing the risk of fatigue at work https://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/doc/guide-managing-risk-fatigue-work <div class="node node--type-document node--view-mode-rss layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field-overview"> <div class="field__label">Overview</div> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>This Guide provides practical guidance for persons conducting a business or undertaking and other duty holders on how to manage fatigue to ensure it does not contribute to health and safety risks in the workplace.</p> <p>The Guide contains information that can be applied generally to all types of work and workplaces covered by the Work Health and Safety (WHS) Act. It is not designed to provide information on managing fatigue in specific industries and does not replace requirements related to fatigue under other laws, for example heavy vehicle driver fatigue laws or rail safety requirements.</p> <p>This information is available in the National Transport Commission’s Guidelines for Managing Heavy Vehicle Driver Fatigue and the National Rail Safety Regulator’s Guidance on Fatigue Risk Management Program. Working hours may also be subject to industrial awards or enterprise agreements.</p> </div> <div class="field-downloads"> <h2 class="field__label">Downloads</h2> <div class="field field--name-field-document-info field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--document-info paragraph--view-mode--swa-document-first-item"> <ul class="document-tiles direct-dl-files row"> <li class="field field--name-field-file-information field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items col-sm-4"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--file-information paragraph--view-mode--swa-document-full-view"> <a href="/system/files/documents/1702/managing-the-risk-of-fatigue.docx" title="managing-the-risk-of-fatigue.docx" class="tile type-docx"><div class="document-icon"></div> <p class="link-type"><span class="visually-hidden">managing-the-risk-of-fatigue.docx</span> DOCX</p> <p class="file-size">4.86 MB</p> <div class="file-meta"> <div class="field field--name-field-isbn field--type-string field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">ISBN</div> <div class="field__item">978-1-74361-260-6</div> </div> </div> </a> </div> </div> </li> <li class="field field--name-field-file-information field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items col-sm-4"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--file-information paragraph--view-mode--swa-document-full-view"> <a href="/system/files/documents/1702/managing-the-risk-of-fatigue.pdf" title="managing-the-risk-of-fatigue.pdf" class="tile type-pdf"><div class="document-icon"></div> <p class="link-type"><span class="visually-hidden">managing-the-risk-of-fatigue.pdf</span> PDF</p> <p class="file-size">1.09 MB</p> <div class="file-meta"> <div class="field field--name-field-isbn field--type-string field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">ISBN</div> <div class="field__item">978-1-74361-260-6</div> </div> </div> </a> </div> </div> </li> </ul> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Publication date</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2013-11-27T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">27 Nov 2013</time> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-document-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Document type</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/160" hreflang="en">Guidance materials</a></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Tag by Category</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/24" hreflang="en">Health and wellbeing</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-tag-by-topic field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Tag by Topic</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/78" hreflang="en">Fatigue</a></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Thu, 19 Mar 2020 11:13:53 +0000 Fatigue Model Code of Practice: How to manage work health and safety risks https://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/doc/model-code-practice-how-manage-work-health-and-safety-risks <div class="node node--type-document node--view-mode-rss layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field-overview"> <div class="field__label">Overview</div> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>This model Code of Practice has been developed to provide practical guidance for persons who have duties to manage risks to health and safety under the WHS Act and Regulations applying in a jurisdiction. The duty is placed on persons conducting a business or undertaking, including employers, self-employed, principal contractors, persons with management or control of a workplace, designers, manufacturers, importers and suppliers of plant, substances or structures that are used for work.</p> <p>To have legal effect in a jurisdiction, the model Code of Practice must be approved as a code of practice in that jurisdiction. To determine if this model Code of Practice has been approved as a code of practice in a particular jurisdiction, <a href="/node/228">check with the relevant regulator.</a></p> </div> <div class="field-downloads"> <h2 class="field__label">Downloads</h2> <div class="field field--name-field-document-info field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--document-info paragraph--view-mode--swa-document-first-item"> <ul class="document-tiles direct-dl-files row"> <li class="field field--name-field-file-information field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items col-sm-4"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--file-information paragraph--view-mode--swa-document-full-view"> <a href="/system/files/documents/1901/code_of_practice_-_how_to_manage_work_health_and_safety_risks_1.pdf" title="code_of_practice_-_how_to_manage_work_health_and_safety_risks_1.pdf" class="tile type-pdf"><div class="document-icon"></div> <p class="link-type"><span class="visually-hidden">code_of_practice_-_how_to_manage_work_health_and_safety_risks_1.pdf</span> PDF</p> <p class="file-size">596.32 KB</p> <div class="file-meta"> <div class="field field--name-field-isbn field--type-string field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">ISBN</div> <div class="field__item">978-0-642-33301-8</div> </div> </div> </a> </div> </div> </li> <li class="field field--name-field-file-information field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items col-sm-4"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--file-information paragraph--view-mode--swa-document-full-view"> <a href="/system/files/documents/1901/code_of_practice_-_how_to_manage_work_health_and_safety_risks_1.docx" title="code_of_practice_-_how_to_manage_work_health_and_safety_risks_1.docx" class="tile type-docx"><div class="document-icon"></div> <p class="link-type"><span class="visually-hidden">code_of_practice_-_how_to_manage_work_health_and_safety_risks_1.docx</span> DOCX</p> <p class="file-size">365.76 KB</p> <div class="file-meta"> <div class="field field--name-field-isbn field--type-string field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">ISBN</div> <div class="field__item">978-0-642-33302-5</div> </div> </div> </a> </div> </div> </li> <li class="field field--name-field-file-information field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items col-sm-4"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--file-information paragraph--view-mode--swa-document-full-view"> </div> </div> </li> </ul> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Publication date</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2018-05-25T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">25 May 2018</time> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--document-info paragraph--view-mode--swa-document-first-item"> <ul class="document-tiles direct-dl-files row"> <li class="field field--name-field-file-information field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items col-sm-4"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--file-information paragraph--view-mode--swa-document-full-view"> <a href="/system/files/documents/1702/how_to_manage_whs_risks.pdf" title="how_to_manage_whs_risks.pdf" class="tile type-pdf"><div class="document-icon"></div> <p class="link-type"><span class="visually-hidden">how_to_manage_whs_risks.pdf</span> PDF</p> <p class="file-size">1.47 MB</p> <div class="file-meta"> <div class="field field--name-field-isbn field--type-string field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">ISBN</div> <div class="field__item">978-0-642-33301-8</div> </div> </div> </a> </div> </div> </li> <li class="field field--name-field-file-information field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items col-sm-4"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--file-information paragraph--view-mode--swa-document-full-view"> <a href="/system/files/documents/1702/how-to-manage-whs-risks.docx" title="how-to-manage-whs-risks.docx" class="tile type-docx"><div class="document-icon"></div> <p class="link-type"><span class="visually-hidden">how-to-manage-whs-risks.docx</span> DOCX</p> <p class="file-size">5.74 MB</p> <div class="file-meta"> <div class="field field--name-field-isbn field--type-string field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">ISBN</div> <div class="field__item">978-0-642-33302-5</div> </div> </div> </a> </div> </div> </li> </ul> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Publication date</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2011-12-07T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">7 Dec 2011</time> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-document-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Document type</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/163" hreflang="en">Model Codes of Practice</a></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Tag by Category</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/25" hreflang="en">Managing health and safety</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/26" hreflang="en">Model Work Health and Safety Laws</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/69" hreflang="en">The work environment</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-tag-by-topic field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Tag by Topic</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/42" hreflang="en">Bullying</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/49" hreflang="en">Confined spaces</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/78" hreflang="en">Fatigue</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/79" hreflang="en">First aid</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/87" hreflang="en">Identify, assess and control hazards</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/108" hreflang="en">Lifting, pushing and pulling</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/113" hreflang="en">Model WHS Laws</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/117" hreflang="en">Noise</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/121" hreflang="en">Personal protective equipment</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/130" hreflang="en">Risk management</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/148" hreflang="en">Working in heat</a></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Thu, 19 Mar 2020 11:13:53 +0000 Fatigue National Hazard Exposure Worker Surveillance: exposure to biomechanical demands, pain and fatigue symptoms and the provision of controls in Australia workplaces https://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/doc/national-hazard-exposure-worker-surveillance-exposure-biomechanical-demands-pain-and-fatigue <div class="node node--type-document node--view-mode-rss layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field-overview"> <div class="field__label">Overview</div> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Biomechanical demands such as repetitive hand or arm movements, lifting heavy loads or working in awkward postures contribute to the development or worsening of inflammatory or degenerative musculoskeletal disorders. However, little is known about patterns of exposure to different biomechanical demands and how they relate to the demographic and employment characteristics of Australian workers.</p> <p>To address this, in 2008 the National Hazard Exposure Worker Surveillance [NHEWS] survey collected information on 4500 Australian workers’ exposure to nine biomechanical demands, pain and fatigue symptoms and the provision of various risk controls. Almost all workers reported some level of exposure to the biomechanical demands surveyed and 22 per cent were deemed to have high overall (composite) biomechanical demand exposure. In particular, young workers, male workers, night workers and lower skilled workers were most likely to report exposure and had the highest overall biomechanical demand exposure.</p> <p>The reporting of pain and fatigue symptoms was highly related to the level of biomechanical demand exposure. Workplace size (number of workers at a site) and the overall level of biomechanical demand exposure were the best predictors of control provision: workers from large workplaces and those with high exposure were most likely to be provided with biomechanical demand controls. This report presents detailed findings of the NHEWS survey and discusses the implications of these findings for work health and safety policy.</p> </div> <div class="field-downloads"> <h2 class="field__label">Downloads</h2> <div class="field field--name-field-document-info field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--document-info paragraph--view-mode--swa-document-first-item"> <ul class="document-tiles direct-dl-files row"> <li class="field field--name-field-file-information field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items col-sm-4"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--file-information paragraph--view-mode--swa-document-full-view"> <a href="/system/files/documents/1702/nhews_biomechanicaldemands.doc" title="nhews_biomechanicaldemands.doc" class="tile type-doc"><div class="document-icon"></div> <p class="link-type"><span class="visually-hidden">nhews_biomechanicaldemands.doc</span> DOC</p> <p class="file-size">2.41 MB</p> <div class="file-meta"> <div class="field field--name-field-isbn field--type-string field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">ISBN</div> <div class="field__item">978 0 642 33197 7</div> </div> </div> </a> </div> </div> </li> <li class="field field--name-field-file-information field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items col-sm-4"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--file-information paragraph--view-mode--swa-document-full-view"> <a href="/system/files/documents/1702/nhews_biomechanicaldemands.pdf" title="nhews_biomechanicaldemands.pdf" class="tile type-pdf"><div class="document-icon"></div> <p class="link-type"><span class="visually-hidden">nhews_biomechanicaldemands.pdf</span> PDF</p> <p class="file-size">4.02 MB</p> <div class="file-meta"> <div class="field field--name-field-isbn field--type-string field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">ISBN</div> <div class="field__item">978 0 642 33196 0</div> </div> </div> </a> </div> </div> </li> </ul> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Publication date</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2011-03-04T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">4 Mar 2011</time> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-document-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Document type</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/170" hreflang="en">Reports</a></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Tag by Category</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/28" hreflang="en">Research and studies</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-tag-by-topic field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Tag by Topic</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/55" hreflang="en">Disease and illness</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/78" hreflang="en">Fatigue</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/82" hreflang="en">Hazard surveillance research</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/108" hreflang="en">Lifting, pushing and pulling</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/110" hreflang="en">Manual handling</a></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Thu, 19 Mar 2020 11:13:53 +0000 Fatigue The impact of shiftwork on work-related injuries in Australia https://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/doc/impact-shiftwork-work-related-injuries-australia <div class="node node--type-document node--view-mode-rss layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field-overview"> <div class="field__label">Overview</div> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>In 2005-06, 16% of the Australian workforce were shiftworkers. This group recorded an injury rate nearly double the rate of non-shiftworkers. This report provides a detailed analysis of the work-related injuries incurred by shiftworkers.</p> </div> <div class="field-downloads"> <h2 class="field__label">Downloads</h2> <div class="field field--name-field-document-info field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--document-info paragraph--view-mode--swa-document-first-item"> <ul class="document-tiles direct-dl-files row"> <li class="field field--name-field-file-information field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items col-sm-4"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--file-information paragraph--view-mode--swa-document-full-view"> <a href="/system/files/documents/1702/impactofshiftworkonworkrelatedinjuriesaustralia_2009_pdf.pdf" title="impactofshiftworkonworkrelatedinjuriesaustralia_2009_pdf.pdf" class="tile type-pdf"><div class="document-icon"></div> <p class="link-type"><span class="visually-hidden">impactofshiftworkonworkrelatedinjuriesaustralia_2009_pdf.pdf</span> PDF</p> <p class="file-size">375.12 KB</p> <div class="file-meta"> <div class="field field--name-field-isbn field--type-string field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">ISBN</div> <div class="field__item">978 0 642 32892 2</div> </div> </div> </a> </div> </div> </li> <li class="field field--name-field-file-information field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items col-sm-4"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--file-information paragraph--view-mode--swa-document-full-view"> <a href="/system/files/documents/1702/impactofshiftworkonworkrelatedinjuriesaustralia_2009_rtf.rtf" title="impactofshiftworkonworkrelatedinjuriesaustralia_2009_rtf.rtf" class="tile type-rtf"><div class="document-icon"></div> <p class="link-type"><span class="visually-hidden">impactofshiftworkonworkrelatedinjuriesaustralia_2009_rtf.rtf</span> RTF</p> <p class="file-size">2.7 MB</p> <div class="file-meta"> <div class="field field--name-field-isbn field--type-string field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">ISBN</div> <div class="field__item">978 0 642 32892 2</div> </div> </div> </a> </div> </div> </li> </ul> <div class="field field--name-field-publication-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Publication date</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2009-08-01T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">1 Aug 2009</time> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-document-type field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Document type</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/171" hreflang="en">Statistical reports</a></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Tag by Category</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/24" hreflang="en">Health and wellbeing</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/64" hreflang="en">Statistics</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-tag-by-topic field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Tag by Topic</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/78" hreflang="en">Fatigue</a></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Thu, 19 Mar 2020 11:13:53 +0000 Fatigue Transport https://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/transport <div class="node node--type-industry-business node--view-mode-rss layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Body</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Due to a high fatality rate, road transport has been identified as a national priority under <a href="/node/1043"><em>The Australian Work Health and Safety Strategy 2012–2022</em></a>.</p> <ul> <li> <p>Between 2003–15, there were 583 work-related fatalities in the road transport industry, with 92% (535) occurring in the road freight transport industry.</p> </li> </ul> <h2>Road transport: a definition</h2> <p>The road transport industry involves transporting freight by road and operating buses and taxis to transport passengers.</p> <ul> <li>The road transport industry is one of eight subdivisions of the transport, postal and warehousing industry. It includes road freight transport and road passenger transport.</li> </ul> <h2>Industry snapshot</h2> <p>The number of workers in the road transport industry has grown by 16% over the past 13 years from 2003 to 2015. In 2015, 74% of workers within the industry were classed as employees and were covered by workers’ compensation schemes.</p> <p>There have been significant reductions in the number and rate of injuries and fatalities in this industry over the past decade, however it remains a high risk industry.</p> <p>While the road transport industry accounts for 2% of the Australian workforce, latest data shows that it accounts for 4% of workers’ compensation claims for injuries and diseases involving one or more weeks off work, and 17% of work-related fatalities.</p> <ul> <li>Around 5,100 workers’ compensation claims are accepted from the road transport industry each year for injuries and diseases involving one or more weeks off work. This equates to 14 serious claims each day.</li> </ul> <p>In 2014–15, the road transport industry had the 15th highest frequency rate of serious claims per 100 million hours worked and the 12th highest incidence rate per 1,000 employees. However, its fatality rate is very high; it had the fifth highest fatality rate (13.3 fatalities per 100,000 workers) of all industry subdivisions in 2015.</p> <ul> <li><strong>Sprains and strains.</strong> The most frequent work-related injuries and illnesses reported by road transport industry workers are sprains and strains (46.4%) and traumatic joint or muscle conditions (16.2%). The comparable rates for workers in other industries are 45.7% and 14.7% respectively.</li> <li><strong>Diseases of the circulatory system.</strong> Between 2008–09 and 2014–15, truck drivers had one of the highest rates of workers’ compensation claims of the circulatory system (for example stroke, coronary artery disease, hypertension and heart failure). They experienced these diseases at a rate of 68 claims per one million employees over the period, a rate second only to defence force members, firefighters and police (82 claims per one million employees). These diseases are a real threat for truck drivers given their often high levels of obesity, smoking, sleep apnoea and low levels of exercise.</li> </ul> <p>View the <a href="/node/1590"><em>Road transport: Priority industry snapshot</em></a> for an overview of the industry and its WHS performance.</p> <h2>Risks for road transport workers</h2> <p><strong>Time pressures.</strong> Tight deadlines within the transport industry can make drivers feel pressured to speed and skip breaks.</p> <p><strong>Shift work, fatigue and physical fitness. </strong>Shift work is common in the road transport industry and working irregular hours can cause fatigue and have adverse effects on health and safety. Transport work, especially driving, offers workers only brief periods of physical activity, for example when they are loading and unloading. This means workers are at a higher risk of being overweight or obese, are less active and sit for long periods.</p> <p><strong>Poor vehicle design.</strong> Transport drivers’ workplace is their vehicle, and so the design of the seat and vehicle controls as well as the duration and frequency they drive will affect their risk of musculoskeletal discomfort. Poor vehicle design and driving over rough roads can increase exposure to vibration, which increases risks for disorders to the musculoskeletal system and organs.</p> <p><strong>Manual handling of heavy weights.</strong> Loading and unloading vehicles often involves lifting heavy weights.</p> <p><strong>Working at height.</strong> Drivers of trucks regularly climb onto and off their vehicle and falls are a cause of serious incidents. If the worker is required to access the load from the top of the vehicle appropriate fall protection needs to be in place.</p> <p><strong>Gases and fume exposure.</strong> Workers in the transport industry are more likely to report being exposed to airborne hazards such as gases and fumes than workers in other industries.</p> <h2 id="national" name="national">Our national approach</h2> <p><a href="/node/1043">The Australian Work Health and Safety Strategy 2012–2022</a> has identified road freight transport as a priority due to the high number and rate of work-related fatalities and injuries and illnesses.</p> <p>Road freight transport is a focus of national prevention efforts for the first five years of the Australian Strategy to help reduce the high number of fatalities and injuries in this industry.</p> <ul> <li>The Strategy aims to reduce the incidence of serious injury by at least 30% nationwide by 2022, and reduce the number of work-related fatalities due to injury by at least 20%. The transport industry will play a critical role in meeting these targets.</li> </ul> <p>Since the Strategy launched, Safe Work Australia and all jurisdictions have been working collaboratively with the industry, unions, relevant organisations and the community to reduce traumatic injury fatalities and injuries in the transport industry.</p> <h2>Further advice</h2> <p>SWA is not a regulator and cannot advise you about work health and safety compliance in the transport industry. If you need help, contact your state or territory work health and safety authority.</p> <p> </p> <div><div data-embed-button="node" data-entity-embed-display="view_mode:node.node_embed" data-entity-type="node" data-entity-uuid="23668eda-14e7-4532-87e1-cf2fc42aa392" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity"> <div class="node node--type-snippet node--view-mode-node-embed layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><div class="comply" id="redbox"> <div class="states-block"> <h2 class="visuallyhidden">Contact options</h2> <ul class="states"> <li> <div class="nsw"><span class="state-icon"><img alt="An illustration of an outline of New South Wales" src="/sites/default/files/2020-03/NSW.png" /></span> <h3><a href="http://www.safework.nsw.gov.au/" target="_blank">SafeWork NSW</a></h3> <a href="/node/173">View more NSW contacts</a></div> </li> <li> <div class="qld"><span class="state-icon"><img alt="An illustration of an outline of Queensland" src="/sites/default/files/2020-03/qld.png" /> </span> <h3><a href="https://www.worksafe.qld.gov.au/ " target="_blank">Workplace Health and Safety Queensland</a></h3> <a href="/node/174">View more QLD contacts</a></div> </li> <li> <div class="vic"><span class="state-icon"><img alt="An illustration of an outline of Victoria" src="/sites/default/files/2020-03/vic.png" /> </span> <h3><a href="http://www.worksafe.vic.gov.au/ " target="_blank">WorkSafe Victoria</a></h3> <a href="/node/175">View more Vic contacts</a></div> </li> <li> <div class="act"><span class="state-icon"><img alt="An illustration of an outline of the Australian Capital Territory" g="" src="/sites/default/files/2020-03/act.png" /> </span> <h3><a href="https://www.worksafe.act.gov.au/">WorkSafe ACT</a></h3> <a href="/node/176">View more ACT contacts</a></div> </li> <li> <div class="sa"><span class="state-icon"><img alt="An illustration of an outline of South Australia" src="/sites/default/files/2020-03/sa.png" /> </span> <h3><a href="http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/ " target="_blank">SafeWork SA</a></h3> <a href="/node/177">View more SA contacts</a></div> </li> <li> <div class="nt"><span class="state-icon"><img alt="An illustration of an outline of the Northern Territory" src="/sites/default/files/2020-03/nt.png" /> </span> <h3><a href="http://www.worksafe.nt.gov.au" target="_blank">NT WorkSafe</a></h3> <a href="/node/179">View more NT contacts</a></div> </li> <li> <div class="wa"><span class="state-icon"><img alt="An illustration of an outline of Western Australia" src="/sites/default/files/2020-03/wa.png" /> </span> <h3><a href="https://www.commerce.wa.gov.au/worksafe" target="_blank">WorkSafe WA</a></h3> <a href="/node/178">View more WA contacts</a></div> </li> <li> <div class="tas"><span class="state-icon"><img alt="An illustration of an outline of Tasmania" src="/sites/default/files/2020-03/tas.png" /> </span> <h3><a href="http://www.worksafe.tas.gov.au/" target="_blank">WorkSafe Tasmania</a></h3> <a href="/node/180">View more Tas contacts</a></div> </li> <li> <div class="comm"><span class="state-icon"><img alt="An illustration of an outline of Australia" src="/sites/default/files/2020-03/comm.png" /> </span> <h3><a href="http://www.comcare.gov.au/" target="_blank">Comcare</a></h3> <a href="/node/181">View more commonwealth and national contacts</a></div> </li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <p> </p> </div> </div> </div> </div> Mon, 16 Mar 2020 01:13:47 +0000 Fatigue Drugs and alcohol https://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/drugs-alcohol <div class="node node--type-topic node--view-mode-rss layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field overview-group"> <div class="field__label">Overview</div> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Alcohol and drugs—including medicines prescribed by a doctor or available from a pharmacy—can affect a person’s ability to work safely.</p> <h2>Work health and safety duties </h2> <p>All workers have a duty to take reasonable care for their own health and safety and ensure they don’t adversely affect that of others. This means they must be fit and well enough to do their job, not be under the influence of alcohol or drugs, or use alcohol or illegal drugs while at work.</p> <ul> <li>In some jobs such as road and rail transport, maritime and mining occupations, the law sets down a legal blood alcohol level and may prohibit a worker from being affected by any drugs—legal or illegal.</li> </ul> <p>Some companies have explicit policies to test their workers for alcohol and illicit substances. This is particularly important if a worker could kill or seriously injure themselves, another worker or a member of the public.</p> <p>You can get more information on how to reduce work-related risks associated with drug and alcohol use at <a href="https://www.worksafe.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/82756/alcohol-drug-management.pdf">Work Health and Safety Queensland</a>, <a href="http://www.safework.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/49962/drugs_alcohol_workplace_guide_1359.pdf">SafeWork NSW</a> and <a href="http://www.commerce.wa.gov.au/publications/guidance-note-alcohol-and-other-drugs-workplace">Western Australia’s Department of Commerce</a>.</p> <h2>Further advice</h2> <p>SWA is not a regulator and cannot advise you about drugs and alcohol in the workplace. If you need help, please contact your state or territory WHS regulator.</p> <p> </p> <div> <div data-embed-button="node" data-entity-embed-display="view_mode:node.node_embed" data-entity-type="node" data-entity-uuid="23668eda-14e7-4532-87e1-cf2fc42aa392" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity"> <div class="node node--type-snippet node--view-mode-node-embed layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><div class="comply" id="redbox"> <div class="states-block"> <h2 class="visuallyhidden">Contact options</h2> <ul class="states"> <li> <div class="nsw"><span class="state-icon"><img alt="An illustration of an outline of New South Wales" src="/sites/default/files/2020-03/NSW.png" /></span> <h3><a href="http://www.safework.nsw.gov.au/" target="_blank">SafeWork NSW</a></h3> <a href="/node/173">View more NSW contacts</a></div> </li> <li> <div class="qld"><span class="state-icon"><img alt="An illustration of an outline of Queensland" src="/sites/default/files/2020-03/qld.png" /> </span> <h3><a href="https://www.worksafe.qld.gov.au/ " target="_blank">Workplace Health and Safety Queensland</a></h3> <a href="/node/174">View more QLD contacts</a></div> </li> <li> <div class="vic"><span class="state-icon"><img alt="An illustration of an outline of Victoria" src="/sites/default/files/2020-03/vic.png" /> </span> <h3><a href="http://www.worksafe.vic.gov.au/ " target="_blank">WorkSafe Victoria</a></h3> <a href="/node/175">View more Vic contacts</a></div> </li> <li> <div class="act"><span class="state-icon"><img alt="An illustration of an outline of the Australian Capital Territory" g="" src="/sites/default/files/2020-03/act.png" /> </span> <h3><a href="https://www.worksafe.act.gov.au/">WorkSafe ACT</a></h3> <a href="/node/176">View more ACT contacts</a></div> </li> <li> <div class="sa"><span class="state-icon"><img alt="An illustration of an outline of South Australia" src="/sites/default/files/2020-03/sa.png" /> </span> <h3><a href="http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/ " target="_blank">SafeWork SA</a></h3> <a href="/node/177">View more SA contacts</a></div> </li> <li> <div class="nt"><span class="state-icon"><img alt="An illustration of an outline of the Northern Territory" src="/sites/default/files/2020-03/nt.png" /> </span> <h3><a href="http://www.worksafe.nt.gov.au" target="_blank">NT WorkSafe</a></h3> <a href="/node/179">View more NT contacts</a></div> </li> <li> <div class="wa"><span class="state-icon"><img alt="An illustration of an outline of Western Australia" src="/sites/default/files/2020-03/wa.png" /> </span> <h3><a href="https://www.commerce.wa.gov.au/worksafe" target="_blank">WorkSafe WA</a></h3> <a href="/node/178">View more WA contacts</a></div> </li> <li> <div class="tas"><span class="state-icon"><img alt="An illustration of an outline of Tasmania" src="/sites/default/files/2020-03/tas.png" /> </span> <h3><a href="http://www.worksafe.tas.gov.au/" target="_blank">WorkSafe Tasmania</a></h3> <a href="/node/180">View more Tas contacts</a></div> </li> <li> <div class="comm"><span class="state-icon"><img alt="An illustration of an outline of Australia" src="/sites/default/files/2020-03/comm.png" /> </span> <h3><a href="http://www.comcare.gov.au/" target="_blank">Comcare</a></h3> <a href="/node/181">View more commonwealth and national contacts</a></div> </li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <p> </p> </div> </div> </div> </div> Fri, 13 Mar 2020 03:21:55 +0000 Fatigue