What is physical distancing and how does it prevent the spread of COVID-19?

Physical distancing (also referred to as ‘social distancing’) refers to the requirement that people distance themselves from others.  

COVID-19 spreads from person to person through contact with droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes. The droplets may fall directly into the person’s eyes, nose or mouth if they are in close contact with the infected person. A person may also be infected if they touch a surface contaminated with the droplets and then touch their mouth, nose or eyes before washing their hands.

Current health advice states that in order to reduce the risk of contact and droplet spread from a person, directly or indirectly, and from contaminated surfaces, people should maintain physical distance of at least 1.5 metres, practice good hand hygiene and engage in routine cleaning and disinfection of surfaces. 

Physical distancing can also include requirements for there to be 4 square metres of space per person in a room or enclosed space, as well as limits on gathering sizes. These requirements differ between industries and between states and territories. For example, some states and territories have updated public health directions to adjust physical distancing rules in line with local circumstances, such as revising the one person per 4 square metres rule to one person per 2 square metres in some circumstances. 

For more information about physical distancing requirements applicable to your business, go to your relevant state and territory government website. You can also go to our Public health directions and COVIDSafe plans page for links to enforceable government directions.

Do I need to implement physical distancing measures in my workplace?

Yes. It is your duty under work health and safety laws to manage the risk of a person in your workplace spreading and contracting COVID-19, including the risk that persons with COVID-19 enter the workplace. Physical distancing is one of the key ways to lower the risk of COVID-19 being spread or contracted at your workplace.  

The risk of COVID-19 should be treated in the same way as any other workplace hazard – by applying a risk management approach. 

In consultation with your workers, including volunteers, and their representatives (e.g. health and safety representatives (HSRs)), you will need to assess the likelihood and degree of harm people may experience if exposed to COVID-19 and then implement the most effective control measures that are reasonably practicable to manage the risk. The control measures you implement should include outcomes that support physical distancing and operate alongside measures encouraging good hygiene amongst workers and others as well as regular and thorough cleaning of the workplace.

To meet your WHS duty you should be continually monitoring and reviewing the risks to the health and safety of workers and others, as well as the effectiveness of control measures put in place to eliminate or minimise these risks. You must also assess any new or changed risks arising from COVID-19, for example customer aggression, high work demand or working in isolation.

Further guidance on the risk management process is available in the Code of Practice: How to manage work health and safety risks.

You may also need to comply with physical distancing measures issued under public health directions in your state or territory. Each state and territory has directions that reflect local circumstances. For more information about physical distancing requirements, go to your relevant state or territory government website. You can also go to our public health directions and COVIDSafe plans page for links to government health directions. 

How do the public health directions in my state or territory interact with my WHS duty?

You must comply with your state or territory’s public health directions that apply to your business. 

Your WHS duty is to do all that you reasonably can to manage the risks of a person contracting and/or spreading COVID-19 in your workplace. Depending on the circumstances, you may need to implement control measures in order to meet your WHS duty that go beyond the minimum requirements stated in public health directions or advised by public health authorities. For example, public health directions may state you can have up to 10 customers in your shop at any one time. However, in undertaking your risk assessment you may determine that due to the layout of the workplace and your work processes, having 10 customers in the store would not effectively support physical distancing outcomes. Instead, limiting your store to 8 customers at a time would ensure everyone can maintain a physical distance of 1.5 metres from each other.

How do I determine which physical distancing measures to implement to minimise the risk of COVID 19 spreading in my workplace?

To determine which physical distancing measures will be most effective in your workplace, you will need to undertake a risk assessment.

A risk assessment is part of the risk management process which involves identifying where the risk arises in your workplace, assessing the risks (including the likelihood of them happening), controlling the risks and reviewing these controls regularly. These steps remain the same whether you are conducting a risk assessment in relation to work health and safety generally, or specifically in relation to COVID-19.

In order to determine the most effective physical distancing measures you will need to: 

  • identify all activities or situations where people in your workplace may be in close proximity to each other,
  • assess the level of risk that people in these activities or situations may contract and/or spread COVID-19 in your workplace, and
  • determine what control measures are reasonably practicable to implement based on the assessed level of risk. 

Remember, you must consult with workers, including volunteers, and their representatives (e.g. health and safety representatives) on health and safety matters relating to COVID-19, including what control measures to put in place in your workplace. See also our information on consultation.   

See also our information on key considerations for undertaking a risk assessment – COVID-19

What physical distancing measures do I need to implement in my workplace?

Below are suggested measures to ensure physical distancing is achieved in your industry. Certain activities may not be permissible or there may be specific requirements in your state or territory at this time and therefore some of the proposed measures may not be relevant to your workplace. For more information about physical distancing requirements, go to your relevant state or territory government website. You can also go to our public health directions and COVIDSafe plans page for links to government health directions. 

Remember, you must do all that is reasonably practicable to manage the risk of people contracting and/or spreading COVID-19. See also our guidance on determining what is reasonably practicable for more information.

Also remember, you must consult with workers and their representatives (e.g. health and safety representatives (HSRs)) on health and safety matters relating to COVID-19, including what control measures to put in place in your workplace.  

  

Worker interactions and work tasks   

  • Where possible, provide each person with 4 square metres of space in enclosed areas in accordance with general health advice.  
    • To achieve this, calculate the area of the enclosed space (length multiplied by width in metres) and divide by 4. This will provide you with the maximum number of people you should have in the space at any one time.  
    • Where the nature of work means you are not able to provide 4 square metres of space per person, you need to implement other measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19.  
  • To help you achieve 4 square metres of space per person (or where not reasonable, to achieve the maximum space per person) limit the number of workers in your workplace by: 
    • facilitating working from home for office/administrative staff, where you can, and 
    • splitting workers’ shifts to reduce the number of workers onsite at any given time. Schedule time between shifts so that there is no overlap of staff arriving at and leaving the workplace or have different entrances and exits to avoid interaction. 
  • Direct workers to keep 1.5 metres of distance between them in accordance with general health advice. To achieve the best outcomes for physical distancing: 
    • implement measures in combination with measures for 4 square metres spacing, as set out above 
    • put signs around the workplace and create wall or floor markings to identify 1.5 metres distance, for example between workstations. Your staff could wear a badge as a visual reminder to each other of physical distancing requirements, or designate workers to monitor and facilitate physical distancing on processing lines and in common areas like break rooms  
    • limit physical interactions between workers, workers and clients, and workers and other persons at the site – e.g. by using contactless deliveries and limiting non-essential visitors, and  
    • require workers to use other methods such as mobile phone or radio to communicate rather than face to face interaction.  
  • Where it is practical and safe to do so, review tasks and processes that usually require close interaction and identify ways to modify these to increase physical distancing between workers.
    • For example, slow down production in order to create additional time to reduce congestion in boot wash, change and locker rooms. 
    • If workers clock-in and out in areas which can become congested, consider if it can be done using an alternative procedure, such as a having a supervisor check names off a list or provide additional equipment to clock in at another entrance.
    • Consider grouping work teams into sub-teams or cohort groups to reduce the number of different people each person works directly next to. In large sites, cohort groups could work in distinct areas to limit movement within the workplace. This may minimise the spread of COVID-19 if present in the workplace, minimise the number of workers that need to quarantine if quarantine should be required, and increase the effectiveness of any changed systems of work (such as split shifts). 
    • Where possible, limit crossover of workers between different work sites.
  • If changing work tasks and processes is not possible, reduce the amount of time workers spend in close contact. See below for further information where workers are performing tasks in close contact, including vehicle use.  

See also our information on what to do if your workers cannot maintain a physical distance of 1.5 metres.  

Layout of the workplace   

  • You may need to redesign the layout of the workplace and your workflows to enable workers to keep at least 1.5 metres apart to continue performing their duties. This can be achieved by, where possible:  
    • restricting workers and others to certain pathways or areas, such as creating single file pathways, and 
    • spreading out furniture or plant to increase distancing.  
  • Modify the alignment of workstations so that workers do not face one another.
  • Eliminate shared worktables and benches in favour of single worker stations.
  • Consider floor and/or wall markings and signage to identify 1.5 metres distancing requirements. 
  • Allocate different doors for entry and exit through the workplace to minimise bottlenecks. 

If changing the physical layout of the workplace, your layout must allow for workers to enter, exit and move about the workplace both under normal working conditions and in an emergency (including exiting in case of fire) without risks to their health and safety so far as is reasonably practicable.

Physical distancing practice examples  

Bad

  • Workers are within 1.5 metres of one another, side by side or facing workstations.

Workers are within 1.5 metres of one another, side by side or facing workstations
Images courtesy WorkSafe Victoria

Good

  • Physical barriers such as partitions, separate workers from each other.
  • Partitions may need to be adjusted to integrate with the processing line or other manufacturing equipment.

Physical barriers such as partitions
Images courtesy WorkSafe Victoria

Good

  • Workers are spaced at least 1.5 metres apart, not facing one another.
  • Other configurations may be used to achieve similar distancing between workers.

 Workers are spaced at least 1.5 metres apart, not facing one another
Images courtesy WorkSafe Victoria

Good

  • Physical barriers such as partitions separate workers from each other.
  • Partitions may need to be adjusted to integrate with the processing line or other manufacturing equipment, including where workers need to perform tasks in tandem across with each other.
  • For tasks performed in tandem, with workers across from one another, partitions can be positioned to protect workers while allowing the pass-through of materials.

 For tasks performed in tandem
Images courtesy WorkSafe Victoria

Source: These images have been adapted from WorkSafe Victoria’s guidance on Managing the risk of coronavirus (COVID-19) exposure: Meat and poultry processing.
 

Staff gatherings and training

 

  • Face-to-face gatherings, meetings or training only where, and for as long, as necessary.
  • Hold gatherings, meetings or training in spaces that enable workers to keep at least 1.5 metres apart and with 4 square metres of space per person – e.g. outdoors, in large rooms, or by tele and video conferencing.
  • Ensure handwashing facilities, or if not possible, alcohol-based hand sanitiser, are available for workers before and after attending gatherings, meetings or training.
  • Ensure there is adequate ventilation if gatherings are held indoors.

See also our information on training.

Workplace facilities  

  • Ensure workers maintain physical distancing from others at all times, including during breaks and in common areas such as bathrooms, lunch rooms, car parks and smoking areas.
  • Reduce the number of workers using common areas at a given time – e.g by staggering meal breaks and start times. 
  • If possible, arrange separate lunchrooms for work teams or cohort groups. There may be other areas which could be used as alternative break and lunch areas for workers, such as training rooms or portables.
  • If possible, provide each worker with a permanent chair in the lunchroom. If this is not practicable, appropriate cleaning and disinfecting should be undertaken between each use.
  • Re-arrange chairs and tables to maintain 1.5 metre distancing, for example by  limiting each table to 2 people, seated at each end, unless greater distancing can be achieved. Remove excess seats. If this is not possible, consider installing barriers on tables in lunchrooms.
  • Ensure any catering or food service is assessed to minimise contamination risk. For example, consider replacing “made to order” food service with “grab and go” premade options.
  • Provide single use kitchen utensils, cutlery and cups, or if they must be shared ensure they are washed after use, preferably in a dishwasher.
  • Limiting the use of water fountains to dispense into water bottles only.
  • Spread out furniture in common areas. If changing the physical layout of the workplace, you must ensure the layout allows for workers to enter, exit and move about the workplace both under normal working conditions and in an emergency (including exiting in case of fire) without risks to their health and safety so far as is reasonably practicable.  
  • Consider providing separate amenities for workers and others in the workplace – for example separate bathroom facilities for workers and visitors/clients. Increase amenities such as portable toilets and wash areas if required to help maintain 1.5 meters physical distancing. 
  • Increase the number of areas for changing, or allow more time for changing, and consider staggering change times where practicable.
  • Consider changing taps on site to knee or foot-operated, creating partitions between taps and between hoses, and using exhaust fans to reduce high humidity if needed.
  • Place signage about physical distancing around the workplace. Our website has links to a range of posters and resources to help remind workers and others of the risks of COVID-19 and the measures that are necessary to stop its spread. These posters can be placed around the workplace and in client-facing work environments (e.g. workplace entrances). Consideration needs to be given to how to communicate with workers and others with English language barriers.   

Meat and poultry processing

Workers in the meat and poultry processing industry are not exposed to COVID-19 through the meat products they handle. However, there is the potential for an increased risk of exposure due to environmental conditions (e.g. cold and damp) and tasks that normally require close interaction between workers. This has been seen in abattoirs which have had outbreaks both in Australia and overseas.

Workers in meat and poultry processing workplaces often have prolonged close interaction with each other, which can increase the risk of COVID-19 transmission. Staff often work close to one another on processing lines and workers may be near one another at other locations, such as entrances/exits to the facility, clocking in/out points, break rooms, wash rooms, boot rooms, locker/changing rooms, toilets, showers and washing rooms prior to entry into kill floors or processing rooms.

As COVID-19 outbreaks among meat and poultry processing facilities can rapidly affect large numbers of people, it is important that physical distancing, hygiene, cleaning and other measures are implemented in these workplaces.

Screening workers

In addition to the physical distancing measures outlined above, consider implementing a process to screen workers before they enter the workplace. This could include:

  • reminding workers of the common symptoms of COVID-19 and that they should not be at work if they have or have had any of the common symptoms in the last 48 hours 
  • asking workers if they have recently travelled or been in contact with a confirmed case of COVID-19 
  • conducting temperature checks with touch-free thermometers. Temperature checks can be used in combination with other measures but they should not be solely relied on. Temperature checks do not tell you whether a person has COVID-19, a person could have a temperature for another reason unrelated to COVID-19, and people with COVID-19 may also be asymptomatic or on medication that reduces their temperature

For more information on temperature checks and related health monitoring measures, see our information on health monitoring.

It is important that workers and other people who have COVID-19 symptoms do not attend the workplace. You should consider:

  • providing education and training and placing signage to increase awareness of COVID-19 symptoms and what a person should do if they have symptoms including:
    • not coming to work or isolating or quarantining, where instructed by health officials
    • the steps to follow if they develop symptoms at work
    • when to seek medical advice and get tested
  • supporting workers to access testing, stay home if they have symptoms and implementing remote working options for workers in isolation or quarantine, if possible, and
  • workplace policies and procedures to manage cases or outbreaks of COVID-19 in the workplace.

For information about what do if you suspect someone at the workplace has COVID-19 or has been exposed, see our information on COVID-19 in the workplace.

Lifts

  • Even if workers and others only spend a short amount of time in a lift each day, there is still a risk of exposure to COVID-19 that you must eliminate or minimise so far as reasonably practicable. 
  • There is no requirement to provide 4 square metres of space per person in lifts, however you must still ensure, as far as you reasonably can, that people maintain physical distancing in lifts and lift waiting areas.
  • Remember, you must consult with workers and their representatives (e.g. health and safety representatives (HSRs)) on health and safety matters relating to COVID-19.  This includes consulting workers and their representatives on what control measures to put in place to minimise their risk of exposure to COVID-19 in the workplace, including when using lifts.
  • You must also consult with the building owner/manager and other employers in the building about the control measures to be implemented to address the risk of COVID-19. You may not be able to implement all of the control measures yourself but must work with others to ensure those measures are put in place.

What can I do to manage the risk of COVID-19 transmission in lifts? 

  • Safe use of lifts is best achieved through a combination of measures, determined in consultation with workers, including those that control the number of people needing to use a lift at any one time. This includes:
    • reducing the number of workers arriving and leaving buildings and using lifts in peak periods, where possible (e.g. stagger start and finish times for workers by 10-15 minutes per team or group)
    • maintaining working from home arrangements for some staff (where this works for both you and your workers). This could include splitting the workforce into teams with alternating days in the workplace (e.g rotate teams so they are one week in the office and the other week at home), and 
    • changing lift programming to facilitate more efficient flow of users – e.g. decrease the time that doors stay open on each floor (where safe to do so) or where there are multiple lifts, assign specific lifts to certain floors based on demand (e.g. lift A to service floors 1-5, lift B to service floors 6-8 etc). 
  • Where workers and others use lifts it is still important that they physically distance themselves to the extent possible when waiting for a lift and when in the lift. You must do what you reasonably can to ensure crowding in and around lifts does not occur.  
  • In the lift lobby or waiting area:
    • ensure workers and others maintain a physical distance of 1.5 metres, to the extent possible 
    • implement measures at waiting areas for lifts, such as floor markings or queuing systems. Also create specific pathways and movement flows for those exiting the lifts where possible (you may need to consult with your building manager or other employers in the building to ensure this occurs). You could consider engaging someone to monitor compliance with physical distancing measures where appropriate
    • place signage around lift waiting areas reminding users to practice physical distancing and good hygiene while waiting for and using lifts, including to wait for another lift if the lift is full
    • display an advisory passenger limit for each lift – these limits could be temporarily adjusted up by one or two during peak periods where additional demand is unavoidable (subject to it not leading to overcrowding in lifts) to facilitate extra movement of workers and to prevent overcrowding in waiting areas. This may result in fewer persons travelling in a lift at any one time to ensure workers and others maximise physical distance from each other, to the extent possible
  • Within lifts:
    • users of lifts must maintain physical distancing, to the extent possible. Lifts must not be overcrowded and users should avoid touching other users.
    • workers must practice good hygiene in lifts. If they do need to cough or sneeze during a journey they must do so into their arm or a clean tissue. 
    • place signage in the lift reminding workers and others to practice good hygiene by washing their hands, or where this is not possible, using appropriate hand sanitiser, after exiting the lift, particularly if they touched lift buttons, rails or doors – see also our information on hygiene
    • implement regular cleaning of high touchpoints such as lift buttons and railings – see also our information on cleaning.
  • Staff must not to come into work, including using lifts, if they are unwell. 

New risks

  • In some cases, depending on the design of a building, stairs may be an option to reduce demand on lifts. If workers and others are to use stairwells or emergency exits as an alternative to using lifts, you must identify and address any new risks that may arise. For example:
    • the increased risk of slips, trips and falls particularly if the stairs are narrow and dimly lit
    • the risk that arises when opening and closing heavy fire doors, and 
    • the risk that a person may become trapped in the stairwell.
  • You must also consider workers’ compensation arrangements and whether your contract of tenancy allows for workers to use stairs, other than in an emergency.
  • You must also consider how other existing WHS measures will be impacted if you allow workers and others to use stairwells or emergency exits. For example 
    • does increased usage of emergency exits and stairwells impact your emergency plans and procedures? See also our information on emergency plans
    • will stairwell usage increase the risk of fire doors being left open? 
       

Deliveries, contractors and visitors attending the workplace

Delivery drivers, work crews and maintenance staff that travel to and from other sites may present an increased risk of exposure.

  • Non-essential visits to the workplace should be cancelled or postponed.   
  • Minimise the number of workers attending to deliveries and contractors as much as possible. 
  • Delivery drivers and other contractors who need to attend the workplace, to provide maintenance or repair services or perform other essential activities, should be given clear instructions of your requirements while they are on site.  
  • Ensure handwashing facilities, or if not possible, alcohol-based hand sanitiser, is readily available for workers after physically handling deliveries. 
  • Direct visiting delivery drivers and contractors to remain in vehicles and use contactless methods such as mobile phones to communicate with your workers wherever possible.  
  • Direct visiting delivery drivers and contractors to use alcohol-based hand sanitiser before handling products being delivered. 
  • Use, and ask delivery drivers and contractors to use, electronic paper work where possible, to minimise physical interaction. Where possible, set up alternatives to requiring signatures. For instance, see whether a confirmation email or a photo of the loaded or unloaded goods can be accepted as proof of delivery or collection (as applicable). If a pen or other utensil is required for signature you can ask that the pen or utensil is cleaned or sanitised before use. For pens, you may wish to use your own. 

On-going review and monitoring  

  • If physical distancing measures introduce new health and safety risks (e.g. because they impact communication or mean that less people are doing a task), you need to manage those risks too. 
  • Put processes in place to regularly monitor and review the implementation of physical distancing measures to ensure they are being followed and remain effective 

Do I need to provide personal protective equipment to workers who are in close contact with each other?  

You must ensure workers comply with physical distancing requirements where possible. In circumstances where the nature of the task requires workers to be in close contact, you must put control measures in place that minimise the time workers spend with each other or with other people in the workplace. You must also ensure workers are practicing good hygiene.  

If you have a situation where, despite other control measures, workers will be in close contact with each other or with other people for longer than the recommended time (i.e more than 15 minutes face to face cumulative over the course of a week or more than 2 hours in a shared closed space), consider the use of personal protective equipment (PPE).  

Workers must be trained in the proper use of PPE. Be aware of WHS risks that may arise as a result of workers using and wearing PPE. See also our information on PPE.

My workers need to travel in a vehicle together for work purposes. How do they practice physical distancing?   

You must reduce the number of workers travelling together in a vehicle for work purposes. You should ensure that only two people are in a 5 seat vehicle – the driver and a worker behind the front passenger seat. Only one worker should be in a single cab vehicle. 

These measures may mean: 

  • more of your vehicles are on the road at one time  
  • more workers are driving and for longer periods than usual (if driving by themselves).  

Because of this, you should review your procedures and policies for vehicle maintenance and driver safety to ensure they are effective and address all possible WHS risks that arise when workers drive for work purposes.  

If workers are required to travel together for work purposes and the trip is longer than 15 minutes, air conditioning must be set to external airflow rather than to recirculation or windows should be opened for the duration of the trip.  

You must also clean vehicles more frequently, no matter the length of the trip, but at least following each use by workers. See also our information on cleaning.  

Do workers need to practice physical distancing when on a lunch break or when travelling to and from work?

Yes.  Everyone should be keeping 1.5 metres apart wherever possible. You should consider any break areas in the workplace that may lead to people congregating (e.g. designated smoking areas, outdoor benches) and monitor compliance with physical distancing in these areas. Consider whether any changes to these areas in the workplace are needed in addition the areas where work is performed.

Note that in some states and territories there may be strict limitations on gatherings in public places. This means that in some circumstances, workers cannot eat lunch together in a park or travel together in a vehicle to and from work.  

You should refer to your state or territory health authority for further information on specific restrictions in place under public health directions or orders in your state or territory. 

The information below provides guidance on physical distancing during step 2 of the 3-step framework for a COVIDSafe Australia. Some states and territories have updated public health directions to adjust physical distancing rules in line with local circumstances, for example, revising the one person per 4 square metres rule to one person per 2 square metres in some circumstances. 

For more information about physical distancing requirements, go to your relevant state and territory government website. You can also go to our Public health directions and COVIDSafe plans page for links to enforceable government directions.

Watch our video for information on physical distancing to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in your small business. 

Watch video on YouTube Download Transcript

What is physical distancing and how does it prevent the spread of COVID-19?

Physical distancing (also referred to as ‘social distancing’) refers to the requirement that people distance themselves from others.  

COVID-19 spreads from person to person through contact with droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes. The droplets may fall directly into the person’s eyes, nose or mouth if they are in close contact with the infected person. A person may also be infected if they touch a surface contaminated with the droplets and then touch their mouth, nose or eyes before washing their hands.

Current health advice states that in order to reduce the risk of contact and droplet spread from a person, directly or indirectly, and from contaminated surfaces, people should maintain physical distance of at least 1.5 metres, practice good hand hygiene and engage in routine cleaning and disinfection of surfaces. 

Physical distancing can also include requirements for there to be 4 square metres of space per person in a room or enclosed space, as well as limits on gathering sizes. These requirements differ between industries and between states and territories. For example, some states and territories have updated public health directions to adjust physical distancing rules in line with local circumstances, such as revising the one person per 4 square metres rule to one person per 2 square metres in some circumstances. 

For more information about physical distancing requirements applicable to your business, go to your relevant state and territory government website. You can also go to our Public health directions and COVIDSafe plans page for links to enforceable government directions.

Do I need to implement physical distancing measures in my workplace?

Yes. It is your duty under work health and safety laws to manage the risk of a person in your workplace spreading and contracting COVID-19, including the risk that persons with COVID-19 enter the workplace. Physical distancing is one of the key ways to lower the risk of COVID-19 being spread or contracted at your workplace.  

The risk of COVID-19 should be treated in the same way as any other workplace hazard – by applying a risk management approach. 

In consultation with your workers, including volunteers, and their representatives (e.g. health and safety representatives (HSRs)), you will need to assess the likelihood and degree of harm people may experience if exposed to COVID-19 and then implement the most effective control measures that are reasonably practicable to manage the risk. The control measures you implement should include outcomes that support physical distancing and operate alongside measures encouraging good hygiene amongst workers and others as well as regular and thorough cleaning of the workplace.

To meet your WHS duty you should be continually monitoring and reviewing the risks to the health and safety of workers and others, as well as the effectiveness of control measures put in place to eliminate or minimise these risks. You must also assess any new or changed risks arising from COVID-19, for example customer aggression, high work demand or working in isolation.

Further guidance on the risk management process is available in the Code of Practice: How to manage work health and safety risks.

You may also need to comply with physical distancing measures issued under public health directions in your state or territory. Each state and territory has directions that reflect local circumstances. For more information about physical distancing requirements, go to your relevant state or territory government website. You can also go to our public health directions and COVIDSafe plans page for links to government health directions. 

How do the public health directions in my state or territory interact with my WHS duty?

You must comply with your state or territory’s public health directions that apply to your business. 

Your WHS duty is to do all that you reasonably can to manage the risks of a person contracting and/or spreading COVID-19 in your workplace. Depending on the circumstances, you may need to implement control measures in order to meet your WHS duty that go beyond the minimum requirements stated in public health directions or advised by public health authorities. For example, public health directions may state you can have up to 10 customers in your shop at any one time. However, in undertaking your risk assessment you may determine that due to the layout of the workplace and your work processes, having 10 customers in the store would not effectively support physical distancing outcomes. Instead, limiting your store to 8 customers at a time would ensure everyone can maintain a physical distance of 1.5 metres from each other.

How do I determine which physical distancing measures to implement to minimise the risk of COVID 19 spreading in my workplace?

To determine which physical distancing measures will be most effective in your workplace, you will need to undertake a risk assessment.

A risk assessment is part of the risk management process which involves identifying where the risk arises in your workplace, assessing the risks (including the likelihood of them happening), controlling the risks and reviewing these controls regularly. These steps remain the same whether you are conducting a risk assessment in relation to work health and safety generally, or specifically in relation to COVID-19.

In order to determine the most effective physical distancing measures you will need to: 

  • identify all activities or situations where people in your workplace may be in close proximity to each other,
  • assess the level of risk that people in these activities or situations may contract and/or spread COVID-19 in your workplace, and
  • determine what control measures are reasonably practicable to implement based on the assessed level of risk. 

Remember, you must consult with workers, including volunteers, and their representatives (e.g. health and safety representatives) on health and safety matters relating to COVID-19, including what control measures to put in place in your workplace. See also our information on consultation.   

See also our information on key considerations for undertaking a risk assessment – COVID-19

What physical distancing measures do I need to implement in my workplace?

Below are suggested measures to ensure physical distancing is achieved in your industry. Certain activities may not be permissible or there may be specific requirements in your state or territory at this time and therefore some of the proposed measures may not be relevant to your workplace. For more information about physical distancing requirements, go to your relevant state or territory government website. You can also go to our public health directions and COVIDSafe plans page for links to government health directions. 

Remember, you must do all that is reasonably practicable to manage the risk of people contracting and/or spreading COVID-19. See also our guidance on determining what is reasonably practicable for more information.

Also remember, you must consult with workers and their representatives (e.g. health and safety representatives (HSRs)) on health and safety matters relating to COVID-19, including what control measures to put in place in your workplace.  

Working in close contact increases the risk of workers being exposed to COVID-19. You must consider whether the work task must be completed or could be rescheduled to a later date. If the task must be completed and your workers will be in close contact, you must undertake a risk assessment to determine what control measures are reasonably practicable in the circumstances to eliminate or minimise health and safety risks from COVID-19. For example, if close contact with others is unavoidable, you must implement other control measures such as: 

  • minimising the number of people within an area at any time. Limit access to the workplace or parts of the workplace to essential workers only 
  • staggering start, finish and break times where possible, so workers are less likely to be travelling on crowded public transport and to avoid congestion of workers in parking areas, locker rooms and entry points 
  • moving work tasks to different areas of the workplace or off-site if possible 
  • if possible, separating workers into dedicated teams and have them work the same shift or work in a particular area, and consider whether these dedicated teams can have access to their own meal areas or break facilities
  • install screens or plastic strip curtains where possible to minimise the risk of droplet transmission from one worker to another. Partitions may need to be adjusted to integrate with the processing line or other manufacturing equipment
  • for tasks performed in tandem with workers across from one another, positioning  partitions to protect workers while allowing the pass-through of materials 
  • ensuring each worker has their own equipment or tools. If tools are shared, they should be cleaned and disinfected before and after each worker uses them, and
  • limiting physical contact by using drop off points or transfer zones for shared tools, spare parts, samples and raw materials.

Personal protective equipment (PPE) may also be appropriate in some circumstances where physical distance is not able to be maintained. See also our information on PPE below.

What physical distancing measures do I need to implement in my workplace?

Below are measures to ensure physical distancing is achieved in workplaces in the food processing and manufacturing industry.  

Every part of the workplace needs to be considered. This includes areas such as entry and exit points, shared facilities like cafeterias, toilets and change rooms, warehouses, kill floors and manufacturing, packaging and storage areas.

Remember, you must consult with workers and their representatives (e.g. health and safety representatives (HSRs)) on health and safety matters relating to COVID-19, including what control measures to put in place in your workplace.  

Worker interactions and work tasks   

  • Where possible, provide each person with 4 square metres of space in enclosed areas in accordance with general health advice.  
    • To achieve this, calculate the area of the enclosed space (length multiplied by width in metres) and divide by 4. This will provide you with the maximum number of people you should have in the space at any one time.  
    • Where the nature of work means you are not able to provide 4 square metres of space per person, you need to implement other measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19.  
  • To help you achieve 4 square metres of space per person (or where not reasonable, to achieve the maximum space per person) limit the number of workers in your workplace by: 
    • facilitating working from home for office/administrative staff, where you can, and 
    • splitting workers’ shifts to reduce the number of workers onsite at any given time. Schedule time between shifts so that there is no overlap of staff arriving at and leaving the workplace or have different entrances and exits to avoid interaction. 
  • Direct workers to keep 1.5 metres of distance between them in accordance with general health advice. To achieve the best outcomes for physical distancing: 
    • implement measures in combination with measures for 4 square metres spacing, as set out above 
    • put signs around the workplace and create wall or floor markings to identify 1.5 metres distance, for example between workstations. Your staff could wear a badge as a visual reminder to each other of physical distancing requirements, or designate workers to monitor and facilitate physical distancing on processing lines and in common areas like break rooms  
    • limit physical interactions between workers, workers and clients, and workers and other persons at the site – e.g. by using contactless deliveries and limiting non-essential visitors, and  
    • require workers to use other methods such as mobile phone or radio to communicate rather than face to face interaction.  
  • Where it is practical and safe to do so, review tasks and processes that usually require close interaction and identify ways to modify these to increase physical distancing between workers.
    • For example, slow down production in order to create additional time to reduce congestion in boot wash, change and locker rooms. 
    • If workers clock-in and out in areas which can become congested, consider if it can be done using an alternative procedure, such as a having a supervisor check names off a list or provide additional equipment to clock in at another entrance.
    • Consider grouping work teams into sub-teams or cohort groups to reduce the number of different people each person works directly next to. In large sites, cohort groups could work in distinct areas to limit movement within the workplace. This may minimise the spread of COVID-19 if present in the workplace, minimise the number of workers that need to quarantine if quarantine should be required, and increase the effectiveness of any changed systems of work (such as split shifts). 
    • Where possible, limit crossover of workers between different work sites.
  • If changing work tasks and processes is not possible, reduce the amount of time workers spend in close contact. See below for further information where workers are performing tasks in close contact, including vehicle use.  

See also our information on what to do if your workers cannot maintain a physical distance of 1.5 metres.  

Layout of the workplace   

  • You may need to redesign the layout of the workplace and your workflows to enable workers to keep at least 1.5 metres apart to continue performing their duties. This can be achieved by, where possible:  
    • restricting workers and others to certain pathways or areas, such as creating single file pathways, and 
    • spreading out furniture or plant to increase distancing.  
  • Modify the alignment of workstations so that workers do not face one another.
  • Eliminate shared worktables and benches in favour of single worker stations.
  • Consider floor and/or wall markings and signage to identify 1.5 metres distancing requirements. 
  • Allocate different doors for entry and exit through the workplace to minimise bottlenecks. 

If changing the physical layout of the workplace, your layout must allow for workers to enter, exit and move about the workplace both under normal working conditions and in an emergency (including exiting in case of fire) without risks to their health and safety so far as is reasonably practicable.

Physical distancing practice examples  

Bad

  • Workers are within 1.5 metres of one another, side by side or facing workstations.

Workers are within 1.5 metres of one another, side by side or facing workstations
Images courtesy WorkSafe Victoria

Good

  • Physical barriers such as partitions, separate workers from each other.
  • Partitions may need to be adjusted to integrate with the processing line or other manufacturing equipment.

Physical barriers such as partitions
Images courtesy WorkSafe Victoria

Good

  • Workers are spaced at least 1.5 metres apart, not facing one another.
  • Other configurations may be used to achieve similar distancing between workers.

 Workers are spaced at least 1.5 metres apart, not facing one another
Images courtesy WorkSafe Victoria

Good

  • Physical barriers such as partitions separate workers from each other.
  • Partitions may need to be adjusted to integrate with the processing line or other manufacturing equipment, including where workers need to perform tasks in tandem across with each other.
  • For tasks performed in tandem, with workers across from one another, partitions can be positioned to protect workers while allowing the pass-through of materials.

 For tasks performed in tandem
Images courtesy WorkSafe Victoria

Source: These images have been adapted from WorkSafe Victoria’s guidance on Managing the risk of coronavirus (COVID-19) exposure: Meat and poultry processing.
 

Staff gatherings and training

 

  • Face-to-face gatherings, meetings or training only where, and for as long, as necessary.
  • Hold gatherings, meetings or training in spaces that enable workers to keep at least 1.5 metres apart and with 4 square metres of space per person – e.g. outdoors, in large rooms, or by tele and video conferencing.
  • Ensure handwashing facilities, or if not possible, alcohol-based hand sanitiser, are available for workers before and after attending gatherings, meetings or training.
  • Ensure there is adequate ventilation if gatherings are held indoors.

See also our information on training.

Workplace facilities  

  • Ensure workers maintain physical distancing from others at all times, including during breaks and in common areas such as bathrooms, lunch rooms, car parks and smoking areas.
  • Reduce the number of workers using common areas at a given time – e.g by staggering meal breaks and start times. 
  • If possible, arrange separate lunchrooms for work teams or cohort groups. There may be other areas which could be used as alternative break and lunch areas for workers, such as training rooms or portables.
  • If possible, provide each worker with a permanent chair in the lunchroom. If this is not practicable, appropriate cleaning and disinfecting should be undertaken between each use.
  • Re-arrange chairs and tables to maintain 1.5 metre distancing, for example by  limiting each table to 2 people, seated at each end, unless greater distancing can be achieved. Remove excess seats. If this is not possible, consider installing barriers on tables in lunchrooms.
  • Ensure any catering or food service is assessed to minimise contamination risk. For example, consider replacing “made to order” food service with “grab and go” premade options.
  • Provide single use kitchen utensils, cutlery and cups, or if they must be shared ensure they are washed after use, preferably in a dishwasher.
  • Limiting the use of water fountains to dispense into water bottles only.
  • Spread out furniture in common areas. If changing the physical layout of the workplace, you must ensure the layout allows for workers to enter, exit and move about the workplace both under normal working conditions and in an emergency (including exiting in case of fire) without risks to their health and safety so far as is reasonably practicable.  
  • Consider providing separate amenities for workers and others in the workplace – for example separate bathroom facilities for workers and visitors/clients. Increase amenities such as portable toilets and wash areas if required to help maintain 1.5 meters physical distancing. 
  • Increase the number of areas for changing, or allow more time for changing, and consider staggering change times where practicable.
  • Consider changing taps on site to knee or foot-operated, creating partitions between taps and between hoses, and using exhaust fans to reduce high humidity if needed.
  • Place signage about physical distancing around the workplace. Our website has links to a range of posters and resources to help remind workers and others of the risks of COVID-19 and the measures that are necessary to stop its spread. These posters can be placed around the workplace and in client-facing work environments (e.g. workplace entrances). Consideration needs to be given to how to communicate with workers and others with English language barriers.   

Meat and poultry processing

Workers in the meat and poultry processing industry are not exposed to COVID-19 through the meat products they handle. However, there is the potential for an increased risk of exposure due to environmental conditions (e.g. cold and damp) and tasks that normally require close interaction between workers. This has been seen in abattoirs which have had outbreaks both in Australia and overseas.

Workers in meat and poultry processing workplaces often have prolonged close interaction with each other, which can increase the risk of COVID-19 transmission. Staff often work close to one another on processing lines and workers may be near one another at other locations, such as entrances/exits to the facility, clocking in/out points, break rooms, wash rooms, boot rooms, locker/changing rooms, toilets, showers and washing rooms prior to entry into kill floors or processing rooms.

As COVID-19 outbreaks among meat and poultry processing facilities can rapidly affect large numbers of people, it is important that physical distancing, hygiene, cleaning and other measures are implemented in these workplaces.

Screening workers

In addition to the physical distancing measures outlined above, consider implementing a process to screen workers before they enter the workplace. This could include:

  • reminding workers of the common symptoms of COVID-19 and that they should not be at work if they have or have had any of the common symptoms in the last 48 hours 
  • asking workers if they have recently travelled or been in contact with a confirmed case of COVID-19 
  • conducting temperature checks with touch-free thermometers. Temperature checks can be used in combination with other measures but they should not be solely relied on. Temperature checks do not tell you whether a person has COVID-19, a person could have a temperature for another reason unrelated to COVID-19, and people with COVID-19 may also be asymptomatic or on medication that reduces their temperature

For more information on temperature checks and related health monitoring measures, see our information on health monitoring.

It is important that workers and other people who have COVID-19 symptoms do not attend the workplace. You should consider:

  • providing education and training and placing signage to increase awareness of COVID-19 symptoms and what a person should do if they have symptoms including:
    • not coming to work or isolating or quarantining, where instructed by health officials
    • the steps to follow if they develop symptoms at work
    • when to seek medical advice and get tested
  • supporting workers to access testing, stay home if they have symptoms and implementing remote working options for workers in isolation or quarantine, if possible, and
  • workplace policies and procedures to manage cases or outbreaks of COVID-19 in the workplace.

For information about what do if you suspect someone at the workplace has COVID-19 or has been exposed, see our information on COVID-19 in the workplace.

Lifts

  • Even if workers and others only spend a short amount of time in a lift each day, there is still a risk of exposure to COVID-19 that you must eliminate or minimise so far as reasonably practicable. 
  • There is no requirement to provide 4 square metres of space per person in lifts, however you must still ensure, as far as you reasonably can, that people maintain physical distancing in lifts and lift waiting areas.
  • Remember, you must consult with workers and their representatives (e.g. health and safety representatives (HSRs)) on health and safety matters relating to COVID-19.  This includes consulting workers and their representatives on what control measures to put in place to minimise their risk of exposure to COVID-19 in the workplace, including when using lifts.
  • You must also consult with the building owner/manager and other employers in the building about the control measures to be implemented to address the risk of COVID-19. You may not be able to implement all of the control measures yourself but must work with others to ensure those measures are put in place.

What can I do to manage the risk of COVID-19 transmission in lifts? 

  • Safe use of lifts is best achieved through a combination of measures, determined in consultation with workers, including those that control the number of people needing to use a lift at any one time. This includes:
    • reducing the number of workers arriving and leaving buildings and using lifts in peak periods, where possible (e.g. stagger start and finish times for workers by 10-15 minutes per team or group)
    • maintaining working from home arrangements for some staff (where this works for both you and your workers). This could include splitting the workforce into teams with alternating days in the workplace (e.g rotate teams so they are one week in the office and the other week at home), and 
    • changing lift programming to facilitate more efficient flow of users – e.g. decrease the time that doors stay open on each floor (where safe to do so) or where there are multiple lifts, assign specific lifts to certain floors based on demand (e.g. lift A to service floors 1-5, lift B to service floors 6-8 etc). 
  • Where workers and others use lifts it is still important that they physically distance themselves to the extent possible when waiting for a lift and when in the lift. You must do what you reasonably can to ensure crowding in and around lifts does not occur.  
  • In the lift lobby or waiting area:
    • ensure workers and others maintain a physical distance of 1.5 metres, to the extent possible 
    • implement measures at waiting areas for lifts, such as floor markings or queuing systems. Also create specific pathways and movement flows for those exiting the lifts where possible (you may need to consult with your building manager or other employers in the building to ensure this occurs). You could consider engaging someone to monitor compliance with physical distancing measures where appropriate
    • place signage around lift waiting areas reminding users to practice physical distancing and good hygiene while waiting for and using lifts, including to wait for another lift if the lift is full
    • display an advisory passenger limit for each lift – these limits could be temporarily adjusted up by one or two during peak periods where additional demand is unavoidable (subject to it not leading to overcrowding in lifts) to facilitate extra movement of workers and to prevent overcrowding in waiting areas. This may result in fewer persons travelling in a lift at any one time to ensure workers and others maximise physical distance from each other, to the extent possible
  • Within lifts:
    • users of lifts must maintain physical distancing, to the extent possible. Lifts must not be overcrowded and users should avoid touching other users.
    • workers must practice good hygiene in lifts. If they do need to cough or sneeze during a journey they must do so into their arm or a clean tissue. 
    • place signage in the lift reminding workers and others to practice good hygiene by washing their hands, or where this is not possible, using appropriate hand sanitiser, after exiting the lift, particularly if they touched lift buttons, rails or doors – see also our information on hygiene
    • implement regular cleaning of high touchpoints such as lift buttons and railings – see also our information on cleaning.
  • Staff must not to come into work, including using lifts, if they are unwell. 

New risks

  • In some cases, depending on the design of a building, stairs may be an option to reduce demand on lifts. If workers and others are to use stairwells or emergency exits as an alternative to using lifts, you must identify and address any new risks that may arise. For example:
    • the increased risk of slips, trips and falls particularly if the stairs are narrow and dimly lit
    • the risk that arises when opening and closing heavy fire doors, and 
    • the risk that a person may become trapped in the stairwell.
  • You must also consider workers’ compensation arrangements and whether your contract of tenancy allows for workers to use stairs, other than in an emergency.
  • You must also consider how other existing WHS measures will be impacted if you allow workers and others to use stairwells or emergency exits. For example 
    • does increased usage of emergency exits and stairwells impact your emergency plans and procedures? See also our information on emergency plans
    • will stairwell usage increase the risk of fire doors being left open? 
       

Deliveries, contractors and visitors attending the workplace

Delivery drivers, work crews and maintenance staff that travel to and from other sites may present an increased risk of exposure.

  • Non-essential visits to the workplace should be cancelled or postponed.   
  • Minimise the number of workers attending to deliveries and contractors as much as possible. 
  • Delivery drivers and other contractors who need to attend the workplace, to provide maintenance or repair services or perform other essential activities, should be given clear instructions of your requirements while they are on site.  
  • Ensure handwashing facilities, or if not possible, alcohol-based hand sanitiser, is readily available for workers after physically handling deliveries. 
  • Direct visiting delivery drivers and contractors to remain in vehicles and use contactless methods such as mobile phones to communicate with your workers wherever possible.  
  • Direct visiting delivery drivers and contractors to use alcohol-based hand sanitiser before handling products being delivered. 
  • Use, and ask delivery drivers and contractors to use, electronic paper work where possible, to minimise physical interaction. Where possible, set up alternatives to requiring signatures. For instance, see whether a confirmation email or a photo of the loaded or unloaded goods can be accepted as proof of delivery or collection (as applicable). If a pen or other utensil is required for signature you can ask that the pen or utensil is cleaned or sanitised before use. For pens, you may wish to use your own. 

On-going review and monitoring  

  • If physical distancing measures introduce new health and safety risks (e.g. because they impact communication or mean that less people are doing a task), you need to manage those risks too. 
  • Put processes in place to regularly monitor and review the implementation of physical distancing measures to ensure they are being followed and remain effective 

Do I need to provide personal protective equipment to workers who are in close contact with each other?  

You must ensure workers comply with physical distancing requirements where possible. In circumstances where the nature of the task requires workers to be in close contact, you must put control measures in place that minimise the time workers spend with each other or with other people in the workplace. You must also ensure workers are practicing good hygiene.  

If you have a situation where, despite other control measures, workers will be in close contact with each other or with other people for longer than the recommended time (i.e more than 15 minutes face to face cumulative over the course of a week or more than 2 hours in a shared closed space), consider the use of personal protective equipment (PPE).  

Workers must be trained in the proper use of PPE. Be aware of WHS risks that may arise as a result of workers using and wearing PPE. See also our information on PPE.

My workers need to travel in a vehicle together for work purposes. How do they practice physical distancing?   

You must reduce the number of workers travelling together in a vehicle for work purposes. You should ensure that only two people are in a 5 seat vehicle – the driver and a worker behind the front passenger seat. Only one worker should be in a single cab vehicle. 

These measures may mean: 

  • more of your vehicles are on the road at one time  
  • more workers are driving and for longer periods than usual (if driving by themselves).  

Because of this, you should review your procedures and policies for vehicle maintenance and driver safety to ensure they are effective and address all possible WHS risks that arise when workers drive for work purposes.  

If workers are required to travel together for work purposes and the trip is longer than 15 minutes, air conditioning must be set to external airflow rather than to recirculation or windows should be opened for the duration of the trip.  

You must also clean vehicles more frequently, no matter the length of the trip, but at least following each use by workers. See also our information on cleaning.  

Do workers need to practice physical distancing when on a lunch break or when travelling to and from work?

Yes.  Everyone should be keeping 1.5 metres apart wherever possible. You should consider any break areas in the workplace that may lead to people congregating (e.g. designated smoking areas, outdoor benches) and monitor compliance with physical distancing in these areas. Consider whether any changes to these areas in the workplace are needed in addition the areas where work is performed.

Note that in some states and territories there may be strict limitations on gatherings in public places. This means that in some circumstances, workers cannot eat lunch together in a park or travel together in a vehicle to and from work.  

You should refer to your state or territory health authority for further information on specific restrictions in place under public health directions or orders in your state or territory. 

What is physical distancing and how does it prevent the spread of COVID-19?

Physical distancing (also referred to as ‘social distancing’) refers to the requirement that people distance themselves from others.  

COVID-19 spreads from person to person through contact with droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes. The droplets may fall directly into the person’s eyes, nose or mouth if they are in close contact with the infected person. A person may also be infected if they touch a surface contaminated with the droplets and then touch their mouth, nose or eyes before washing their hands.

Current health advice states that in order to reduce the risk of contact and droplet spread from a person, directly or indirectly, and from contaminated surfaces, people should maintain physical distance of at least 1.5 metres, practice good hand hygiene and engage in routine cleaning and disinfection of surfaces. 

Physical distancing can also include requirements for there to be 4 square metres of space per person in a room or enclosed space, as well as limits on gathering sizes. These requirements differ between industries and between states and territories. For example, some states and territories have updated public health directions to adjust physical distancing rules in line with local circumstances, such as revising the one person per 4 square metres rule to one person per 2 square metres in some circumstances. 

For more information about physical distancing requirements applicable to your business, go to your relevant state and territory government website. You can also go to our Public health directions and COVIDSafe plans page for links to enforceable government directions.

What if I cannot always maintain a physical distance of 1.5 metres?

It will not always be possible for you to keep 1.5 metres apart from customers at the workplace. Some tasks will also require you and other workers to be in close proximity in order to be carried out safely, such as lifting and moving heavy objects. 
Working in close contact with others increases your risk of being exposed to COVID-19. In these situations, your employer may consider delaying the task or seek to modify the task. Your employer must consult with you and relevant health and safety representatives on how to perform the work task safely, including where maintaining a physical distance of 1.5 metres is not possible.

For information on the measures your employer should be implementing see our employer information for your industry.

When working in close contact with others, you must practise good hygiene by washing your hands for at least 20 seconds with soap and water or by using an alcohol-based hand sanitiser (with at least 60% ethanol or 70% isopropanol as the active ingredient).

Does my employer need to provide me with personal protective equipment if I am required to work in close contact with others?

You must comply with physical distancing requirements where possible. In circumstances where the nature of the task requires you to be in close contact with others, your employer must put control measures in place that minimise the time you spend with other people.

If the nature of your work task is such that even with additional control measures in place, you will either be:

  • face to face with a person for longer than 15 minutes over a course of a week, or
  • in a closed shared space with a person for more than 2 hours

You may need to wear personal protective equipment (PPE), where it is available and safe to do so (e.g. disposable gloves, face protection).

Your employer must consult you and your relevant health and safety representative about the use of PPE and any WHS risks that may arise from using it.

Your employer must provide you with information and training on how to use and wear PPE.

Do I need to practice physical distancing when on a lunch break or when travelling to and from work?

Yes. You must always comply with any state or territory public health directions or orders. This includes maintaining a physical distance of 1.5 metres between people in public places and when travelling to and from work.

In some states and territories there are strict limitations on gatherings in public places. This means that in some circumstances, workers cannot eat lunch together in a park or travel together in a vehicle to and from work.

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